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Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Renice: Change Process Priority

Renice is a tool to change running process priority unix/linux systems. Once a process is running, you can use renice command. A nice level of 19 is the "nicest": the process will run only when nothing else on the system wants to. Negative values make a process get a greater percentage of the CPU's time than the default niceness (which is 0). Again, only the superuser can lower the nice number (raise a process' priority). Users can only raise the nice number (lower the priority) and can modify the priorities of only the jobs they started.

Example, "renice -20 -u proxy" (this will change the nice value from 0 to -20 for all proxy's processes)

Monday, June 11, 2012

Learn Morse Code Easily

CW Hombrew Touch Keyer Demo By DJ1FYK

Begali HST Key Demo By DJ1FYK

Facebook Chat Hidden Cartoon

Just copy and paste code to your facebook chat input box

1. Hantu

[[255006724575192]] [[255006727908525]] [[255006737908524]] [[255006734575191]] [[255006731241858]]
[[255006827908515]] [[255006831241848]] [[255006824575182]] [[255006817908516]] [[255006821241849]]
[[255006874575177]] [[255006871241844]] [[255006884575176]] [[255006877908510]] [[255006881241843]]
[[255006934575171]] [[255006931241838]] [[255006941241837]] [[255006944575170]] [[255006937908504]]
[[255007004575164]] [[255007001241831]] [[255006994575165]] [[255006997908498]] [[255006991241832]]
[[255007084575156]] [[255007101241821]] [[255007077908490]] [[255007091241822]] [[255007081241823]]

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Praise From An Elmer

Pada hari ini, saya telah membaca satu artikel terbaru dari 9M2AR di mana ianya adalah satu sokongan moral yang positif tentang pengoperasian dalam mod CW. 9M2AR merupakan salah seorang "old timer" di Malaysia. Bekas guru besar sekolah menengah vokasional alor star, kedah. Beliau sangat positif tentang pengoperasian CW untuk radio amatur. Pada beberapa tahun yang lepas, beliau telah menghadiahkan sehelai baju dan topi kepada mereka yang berjaya bekerja dengan beliau pada kelajuan 18wpm. Ia merupakan satu pengiktirafan dan juga dorongan serta sokongan kepada mereka yang berjaya menaiktaraf kemahiran menerima dan menghantar isyarat CW. Di antara mereka yang telah menerima anugerah tersebut adalah Azman 9M2MGL dari Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang. Sila ke http://9m2mgl.blogspot.com/2007/11/penghargaan-daripada-9m2ar.html untuk maklumat lanjut.

Broadband over Power Line: Why Amateur Radio Is Concerned about Its Deployment

Radio amateurs are not opposed to broadband services. On the contrary, they tend to be early adopters of new technology. However, there are ways to deliver broadband that do not pollute the radio spectrum as Broadband over Power Line (BPL) does. These include fiber-to-the-home, cable, DSL, and wireless broadband. The ARRL--The National Association for Amateur Radio - is supportive of broadband access for all Americans; however, it opposes BPL as a way to achieve this goal because of its high potential for causing interference to radiocommunication.

What is Broadband over Power Line?

BPL is the delivery of broadband Internet signals using electrical wiring to conduct high-speed digital signals to homes and businesses. BPL systems are designed to deliver Internet services using medium voltage power lines as the distribution medium and generally use the frequency range between 1.7 and 80 megahertz (MHz).

The Concern: Broadband + Power Lines = Interference

Because power lines are not designed to prevent radiation of RF energy, BPL represents a significant potential interference source for all radio services using this frequency range, including the Amateur Radio Service. Overhead electrical power lines and residential wiring act as antennas that unintentionally radiate the broadband signals as radio signals throughout entire neighborhoods and along roadsides. Interference has been observed nearly one mile from the nearest BPL source.

Others at risk

• The "short waves" -- the only part of the radio spectrum that supports long-distance, intercontinental radio communication. The short waves are used for international broadcasting, aeronautical, maritime, disaster relief, and other services including the military.
• The "low-band VHF" frequency range that is heavily used by volunteer fire departments, police, and other first responders.
• Depending on their distance from a BPL system, some public safety and federal government radio systems could receive harmful interference.

9M2ZN Homebrew Single Paddle CW keyer

Cikgu Mazwan 9M2ZN adalah salah seorang high speed CW operator di Malaysia yang saya kenali. Saya sungguh kagum dengan kemahiran beliau dalam menghantar dan menerima isyarat CW dalam kelajuan yang sangat laju, sekitar 40wpm ke 50wpm. Jika anda monitor di 7.043MHz di waktu petang, anda bernasib baik jika dapat mendengar CW QSO nya bersama rakan di Alor Star iaitu Cikgu Rahman 9M2AR.

9M2AR telah melawat 9M2ZN di Kota Sarang Semut, Kedah. Di bawah adalah gambar homebrew single paddle keyer yang digunakan oleh 9M2ZN untuk menghantar high speed CW.

Menarik bukan ? bak kata 9M2AR, "It is not the key that count but the man behind it". Cikgu Mazwan boleh menghantar kod Morse dalam kelajuan yang tinggi tanpa sebarang kesalahan. Ragchewing menggunakan kod Morse memerlukan kemahiran yang tinggi, berbeza dengan DXing. Bukan sekadar mengejar stesyen yang jauh (DX), stesyen yang jarang ke udara (rare station) ataupun RST report. Ini adalah kerana ragchewing seolah-olah anda berbual dengan seseorang, tidak mengira apa tajuk. Anda tidak tahu apa soalan yang akan diajukan, topik yang akan dikeluarkan, tidak seperti DXing di mana soalan yang diajukan seolah-olah sama dalam semua QSO.

Lihat video di bawah, high speed CW QSO antara 9M2ZN dan 9M2AR.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Physically Small Spiral Antenna

2012 DXCC List

July 2011 Edition
Current Entities Total: 340
Revision: February 2012

The ARRL DXCC List is also available from our Publication Sales Department for $5.95
each plus shipping. In addition to the List, the paper copy includes: the DXCC rules, DXCC
Award Application, ARRL DXCC Card Checkers, Incoming and Outgoing QSL Bureau
information and more.


All entities on the current list are eligible for field checking

Note: * Indicates current list of entities for which QSLs may be forwarded by the
ARRL membership Outgoing QSL Service.
# Indicates entities with which US Amateurs may legally handle third-party message

Entity Prefix Entity Cont ITU CQ Code

Spratly Is. AS 50 26 247
1A 1 Sov. Mil. Order of Malta EU 28 15 246
3A* Monaco EU 27 14 260
3B6, 7 Agalega & St. Brandon Is. AF 53 39 004
3B8 Mauritius AF 53 39 165
3B9 Rodriguez I. AF 53 39 207
3C Equatorial Guinea AF 47 36 049
3C0 Annobon I. AF 52 36 195
3D2* Fiji OC 56 32 176
3D2 Conway Reef OC 56 32 489
3D2* Rotuma I. OC 56 32 460
3DA# Swaziland AF 57 38 468
3V* Tunisia AF 37 33 474
3W,XV Viet Nam AS 49 26 293
3X Guinea AF 46 35 107
3Y* Bouvet AF 67 38 024
3Y* Peter 1 I. AN 72 12 199
4J, 4K Azerbaijan AS 29 21 018
4L* Georgia AS 29 21 075
4O47* Montenegro EU 28 15 514
4S* Sri Lanka AS 41 22 315
4U_ITU#* ITU HQ EU 28 14 117
4U_UN* United Nations HQ NA 08 05 289
4W 44 Timor - Leste OC 54 28 511
4X, 4Z Israel AS 39 20 336
5A Libya AF 38 34 436
5B, C4, P3* Cyprus AS 39 20 215
5H-5I* Tanzania AF 53 37 470
5N* Nigeria AF 46 35 450
5R Madagascar AF 53 39 438
5T2 Mauritania AF 46 35 444
5U3 Niger AF 46 35 187
5V Togo AF 46 35 483
5W* Samoa OC 62 32 190
5X* Uganda AF 48 37 286
5Y-5Z* Kenya AF 48 37 430
6V-6W4* Senegal AF 46 35 456
6Y#* Jamaica NA 11 08 082
7O5 Yemen AS 39 21 492
7P Lesotho AF 57 38 432
7Q Malawi AF 53 37 440
7T-7Y* Algeria AF 37 33 400
8P* Barbados NA 11 08 062
8Q* Maldives AS/AF 41 22 159
8R#* Guyana SA 12 09 129
9A6* Croatia EU 28 15 497
9G7#* Ghana AF 46 35 424
9H* Malta EU 28 15 257
9I-9J* Zambia AF 53 36 482
9K* Kuwait AS 39 21 348
9L# Sierra Leone AF 46 35 458
9M2, 48* West Malaysia AS 54 28 299
9M6, 88* East Malaysia OC 54 28 046
9N Nepal AS 42 22 369
9Q-9T* Dem. Rep. of Congo AF 52 36 414
9U9 Burundi AF 52 36 404
9V10* Singapore AS 54 28 381
9X9 Rwanda AF 52 36 454
9Y-9Z#* Trinidad & Tobago SA 11 09 090
A2* Botswana AF 57 38 402
A3 Tonga OC 62 32 160
A4* Oman AS 39 21 370
A5 Bhutan AS 41 22 306
A6 United Arab Emirates AS 39 21 391
A7* Qatar AS 39 21 376
A9* Bahrain AS 39 21 304
AP* Pakistan AS 41 21 372
B* China AS (A) 23,24 318
BS711 Scarborough Reef AS 50 27 506
BU-BX* Taiwan AS 44 24 386
BV9P12 Pratas I. AS 44 24 505
C2 Nauru OC 65 31 157
C3* Andorra EU 27 14 203
C5# The Gambia AF 46 35 422
C6 Bahamas NA 11 08 060
C8-9* Mozambique AF 53 37 181
CA-CE#* Chile SA 14,16 12 112
CE0#* Easter I. SA 63 12 047
CE0#* Juan Fernandez Is. SA 14 12 125
CE0#* San Felix & San Ambrosio SA 14 12 217
CE9/KC4^* Antarctica AN (B) (C) 013
CM, CO#* Cuba NA 11 08 070
CN Morocco AF 37 33 446
CP#* Bolivia SA 12,14 10 104
CT* Portugal EU 37 14 272
CT3* Madeira Is. AF 36 33 256
CU* Azores EU 36 14 149
CV-CX#* Uruguay SA 14 13 144
CY0* Sable I. NA 09 05 211
CY9* St. Paul I. NA 09 05 252
D2-3 Angola AF 52 36 401
D4 Cape Verde AF 46 35 409
D6*#13 Comoros AF 53 39 411
DA-DR14* Fed. Rep. of Germany EU 28 14 230
DU-DZ,4D-4I#* Philippines OC 50 27 375
E315 Eritrea AF 48 37 051
E443 Palestine AS 39 20 510
E5 N. Cook Is. OC 62 32 191
E5 S. Cook Is. OC 62 32 234
E729#* Bosnia-Herzegovina EU 28 15 501
EA-EH* Spain EU 37 14 281
EA6-EH6* Balearic Is. EU 37 14 021
EA8-EH8* Canary Is. AF 36 33 029
EA9-EH9* Ceuta & Melilla AF 37 33 032
EI-EJ* Ireland EU 27 14 245
EK* Armenia AS 29 21 014
EL#* Liberia AF 46 35 434
EP-EQ* Iran AS 40 21 330
ER* Moldova EU 29 16 179
ES* Estonia EU 29 15 052
ET* Ethiopia AF 48 37 053
EU-EW* Belarus EU 29 16 027
EX* Kyrgyzstan AS 30,31 17 135
EY* Tajikistan AS 30 17 262
EZ* Turkmenistan AS 30 17 280
F* France EU 27 14 227
FG, TO* Guadeloupe NA 11 08 079
FH, TO13* Mayotte AF 53 39 169
FJ, TO49* Saint Barthelemy NA 11 08 516
FK, TX* New Caledonia OC 56 32 162
FK, TX45 Chesterfield Is. OC 56 30 512
FM, TO* Martinique NA 11 08 084
FO, TX16* Austral I. OC 63 32 508
FO, TX* Clipperton I. NA 10 07 036
FO, TX* French Polynesia OC 63 32 175
FO, TX16* Marquesas Is. OC 63 31 509
FP* St. Pierre & Miquelon NA 09 05 277
FR, TO* Reunion I. AF 53 39 453
FT/G, TO17* Glorioso Is. AF 53 39 099
FT/J,E, TO17* Juan de Nova, Europa AF 53 39 124
FT/T, TO* Tromelin I. AF 53 39 276
FS, TO* Saint Martin NA 11 08 213
FT/W* Crozet I. AF 68 39 041
FT/X* Kerguelen Is. AF 68 39 131
FT/Z* Amsterdam & St. Paul Is. AF 68 39 010
FW* Wallis & Futuna Is. OC 62 32 298
FY* French Guiana SA 12 09 063
G, GX, M* England EU 27 14 223
GD, GT* Isle of Man EU 27 14 114
GI, GN* Northern Ireland EU 27 14 265
GJ, GH* Jersey EU 27 14 122
GM, GS* Scotland EU 27 14 279
GU, GP* Guernsey EU 27 14 106
GW, GC* Wales EU 27 14 294
H4* Solomon Is. OC 51 28 185
H4018* Temotu Province OC 51 32 507
HA, HG* Hungary EU 28 15 239
HB* Switzerland EU 28 14 287
HB0 Liechtenstein EU 28 14 251
HC-HD#* Ecuador SA 12 10 120
HC8-HD8#* Galapagos Is. SA 12 10 071
HH# Haiti NA 11 08 078
HI#* Dominican Republic NA 11 08 072
HJ-HK, 5J-5K#* Colombia SA 12 09 116
HK0#* Malpelo I. SA 12 09 161
HK0#* San Andres & Providencia NA 11 07 216
HL, 6K-6N* Republic of Korea AS 44 25 137
HO-HP#* Panama NA 11 07 088
HQ-HR#* Honduras NA 11 07 080
HS, E2* Thailand AS 49 26 387
HV Vatican EU 28 15 295
HZ* Saudi Arabia AS 39 21 378
I* Italy EU 28 15,33 248
IS0, IM0* Sardinia EU 28 15 225
J2* Djibouti AF 48 37 382
J3#* Grenada NA 11 08 077
J5 Guinea-Bissau AF 46 35 109
J6#* St. Lucia NA 11 08 097
J7#* Dominica NA 11 08 095
J8# St. Vincent NA 11 08 098
JA-JS, 7J-7N* Japan AS 45 25 339
JD119* Minami Torishima OC 90 27 177
JD120* Ogasawara AS 45 27 192
JT-JV* Mongolia AS 32,33 23 363
JW* Svalbard EU 18 40 259
JX* Jan Mayen EU 18 40 118
JY#* Jordan AS 39 20 342
K,W,N, United States of America NA 6,7,8 3,4,5 291
KG4# Guantanamo Bay NA 11 08 105
KH0# Mariana Is. OC 64 27 166
KH1# Baker & Howland Is. OC 61 31 020
KH2#* Guam OC 64 27 103
KH3#* Johnston I. OC 61 31 123
KH4# Midway I. OC 61 31 174
KH5# Palmyra & Jarvis Is. OC 61,62 31 197
KH5K# Kingman Reef OC 61 31 134
KH6,7#* Hawaii OC 61 31 110
KH7K# Kure I. OC 61 31 138
KH8#* American Samoa OC 62 32 009
KH848#* Swains I. OC 62 32 515
KH9# Wake I. OC 65 31 297
KL,AL,NL, Alaska NA 1,2 1 006
KP1# Navassa I. NA 11 08 182
KP2#* Virgin Is. NA 11 08 285
KP3,4#* Puerto Rico NA 11 08 202
KP522# Desecheo I. NA 11 08 043
LA-LN* Norway EU 18 14 266
LO-LW#* Argentina SA 14,16 13 100
LX* Luxembourg EU 27 14 254
LY* Lithuania EU 29 15 146
LZ* Bulgaria EU 28 20 212
OA-OC#* Peru SA 12 10 136
OD* Lebanon AS 39 20 354
OE#* Austria EU 28 15 206
OF-OI* Finland EU 18 15 224
OH0* Aland Is. EU 18 15 005
OJ0* Market Reef EU 18 15 167
OK-OL23* Czech Republic EU 28 15 503
OM23* Slovak Republic EU 28 15 504
ON-OT* Belgium EU 27 14 209
OU-OW, OZ* Denmark EU 18 14 221
OX* Greenland NA 5,75 40 237
OY* Faroe Is. EU 18 14 222
P224 Papua New Guinea OC 51 28 163
P425* Aruba SA 11 09 091
P526 DPR of Korea AS 44 25 344
PA-PI* Netherlands EU 27 14 263
PJ250 Curacao SA 11 09 517
PJ451 Bonaire SA 11 09 520
PJ5,652 Saba & St. Eustatius NA 11 08 519
PJ753 St Maarten NA 11 08 518
PP-PY, ZV-ZZ#* Brazil SA (D) 11 108
PP0-PY0F#* Fernando de Noronha SA 13 11 056
PP0-PY0S#* St. Peter & St. Paul Rocks SA 13 11 253
PP0-PY0T#* Trindade & Martim Vaz Is. SA 15 11 273
PZ Suriname SA 12 09 140
R1/F* Franz Josef Land EU 75 40 061
S01,27 Western Sahara AF 46 33 302
S2* Bangladesh AS 41 22 305
S56* Slovenia EU 28 15 499
S7 Seychelles AF 53 39 379
S9 Sao Tome & Principe AF 47 36 219
SA-SM, 7S-8S* Sweden EU 18 14 284
SN-SR* Poland EU 28 15 269
ST Sudan AF 47, 48 34 466
SU Egypt AF 38 34 478
SV-SZ, J4* Greece EU 28 20 236
SV/A* Mount Athos EU 28 20 180
SV5, J45* Dodecanese EU 28 20 045
SV9, J49* Crete EU 28 20 040
T228 Tuvalu OC 65 31 282
T30 W. Kiribati (Gilbert Is. ) OC 65 31 301
T31 C. Kiribati OC 62 31 031
(British Phoenix Is)
T32 E. Kiribati (Line Is.) OC 61,63 31 048
T33 Banaba I. (Ocean I.) OC 65 31 490
T5, 6O Somalia AF 48 37 232
T7* San Marino EU 28 15 278
T821 Palau OC 64 27 022
TA-TC* Turkey EU/AS 39 20 390
TF* Iceland EU 17 40 242
TG, TD#* Guatemala NA 12 07 076
TI, TE#* Costa Rica NA 11 07 308
TI9#* Cocos I. NA 12 07 037
TJ Cameroon AF 47 36 406
TK* Corsica EU 28 15 214
TL30 Central Africa AF 47 36 408
TN31 Congo (Republic of the) AF 52 36 412
TR32* Gabon AF 52 36 420
TT33 Chad AF 47 36 410
TU34 Cote d'Ivoire AF 46 35 428
TY35 Benin AF 46 35 416
TZ36* Mali AF 46 35 442
UA-UI1,3,4,6 European Russia EU (E) 16 054
UA2, RA2* Kaliningrad EU 29 15 126
UA-UI8,9,0 Asiatic Russia AS (F) (G) 015
UJ-UM Uzbekistan AS 30 17 292
UN-UQ* Kazakhstan AS 29-31 17 130
UR-UZ, Ukraine EU 29 16 288
V2#* Antigua & Barbuda NA 11 08 094
V3# Belize NA 11 07 066
V437# St. Kitts & Nevis NA 11 08 249
V5* Namibia AF 57 38 464
V638 Micronesia OC 65 27 173
V7#* Marshall Is. OC 65 31 168
V8* Brunei Darussalam OC 54 28 345
VA-VG, Canada NA (H) 1-5 001
VK, AX#* Australia OC (I) 29,30 150
VK0#* Heard I. AF 68 39 111
VK0#* Macquarie I. OC 60 30 153
VK9C#* Cocos (Keeling) Is. OC 54 29 038
VK9L#* Lord Howe I. OC 60 30 147
VK9M#* Mellish Reef OC 56 30 171
VK9N* Norfolk I. OC 60 32 189
VK9W#* Willis I. OC 55 30 303
VK9X#* Christmas I. OC 54 29 035
VP2E37 Anguilla NA 11 08 012
VP2M37 Montserrat NA 11 08 096
VP2V37* British Virgin Is. NA 11 08 065
VP5* Turks & Caicos Is. NA 11 08 089
VP6#* Pitcairn I. OC 63 32 172
VP646* Ducie I. OC 63 32 513
VP8* Falkland Is. SA 16 13 141
VP8, LU* South Georgia I. SA 73 13 235
VP8, LU* South Orkney Is. SA 73 13 238
VP8, LU* South Sandwich Is. SA 73 13 240
VP8, LU, South Shetland Is. SA 73 13 241
CE9, HF0, 4K1*
VP9* Bermuda NA 11 05 064
VQ9* Chagos Is. AF 41 39 033
VR* Hong Kong AS 44 24 321
VU* India AS 41 22 324
VU4* Andaman & Nicobar Is. AS 49 26 011
VU7* Lakshadweep Is. AS 41 22 142
XA-XI#* Mexico NA 10 06 050
XA4-XI4#* Revillagigedo NA 10 06 204
XT39* Burkina Faso AF 46 35 480
XU Cambodia AS 49 26 312
XW Laos AS 49 26 143
XX9* Macao AS 44 24 152
XY-XZ Myanmar AS 49 26 309
YA, T6 Afghanistan AS 40 21 003
YB-YH40* Indonesia OC 51,54 28 327
YI* Iraq AS 39 21 333
YJ* Vanuatu OC 56 32 158
YK* Syria AS 39 20 384
YL* Latvia EU 29 15 145
YN,H6-7,HT#* Nicaragua NA 11 07 086
YO-YR* Romania EU 28 20 275
YS, HU#* El Salvador NA 11 07 074
YT-YU* Serbia EU 28 15 296
YV-YY, 4M#* Venezuela SA 12 09 148
YV0#* Aves I. NA 11 08 017
Z2 Zimbabwe AF 53 38 452
Z341* Macedonia EU 28 15 502
Z854 South Sudan (Rep of) AF 48 34 521
ZA Albania EU 28 15 007
ZB2* Gibraltar EU 37 14 233
ZC442* UK Sov. Base Areas AS 39 20 283
on Cyprus
ZD7* St. Helena AF 66 36 250
ZD8* Ascension I. AF 66 36 205
ZD9 Tristan da Cunha & AF 66 38 274
Gough I.
ZF* Cayman Is. NA 11 08 069
ZK2* Niue OC 62 32 188
ZK3* Tokelau Is. OC 62 31 270
ZL-ZM* New Zealand OC 60 32 170
ZL7* Chatham Is. OC 60 32 034
ZL8* Kermadec Is. OC 60 32 133
ZL9* Auckland & Campbell Is. OC 60 32 016
ZP#* Paraguay SA 14 11 132
ZR-ZU#* South Africa AF 57 38 462
ZS8* Prince Edward & Marion Is. AF 57 38 201


1 Unofficial prefix.
2 (5T) Only contacts made June 20, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
3 (5U) Only contacts made August 3, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
4 (6W) Only contact made June 20, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
5 (70) Only contacts made May 22, 1990, and after, count for this entity.
6 (9A,S5) Only contacts made June 26, 1991, and after, count for this entity.
7 (9G) Only contacts made March 5, 1957, and after, count for this entity.
8 (9M2,4,6,8) Only contacts made September 16, 1963, and after,count for this entity.
9 (9U, 9X) Only contacts made July 1, 1962, and after, count for this entity.
10 (9V) Contacts made from September 16, 1963 to August 8, 1965, count for West Malaysia.
11 (BS7) Only contacts made January 1, 1995, and after, count for this entity.
12 (BV9P) Only contact made January 1, 1994, and after, count for this entity.
13 (D6,FH) Only contacts made July 6, 1975, and after, count for this entity.
14 (DA-DR) Only contacts made with DA-DL stations September 17, 1973, and after, and
contacts made Y2-Y9 stations October 3, 1990 and after, count for this entity.
15 (E3) Only contacts made November 14, 1962, and before, or May 24, 1991, and after, count
for this entity.
16 (FO) Only contacts made after 23:59 UTC, March 31, 1998 count for this entity.
17 (FR) Only contacts made June 25, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
18 (H40) Only contacts made after 23:59 UTC, March 31, 1998 count for this entity.
19 (JD) Formerly Marcus Island.
20 (JD) Formerly Bonin and Volcano Islands
21 (T8) Valid prefix January 1, 1994, or after (KC6 prior to this date).
22 (KP5) Only contacts made March 1, 1979, and after, count for this entity.
23 (OK-OL, OM) Only contacts made January 1, 1993, and after, count for this entity.
24 (P2) Only contacts made September 16, 1975, and after count for this entity.
25 (P4) Only contacts made January 1, 1986, and after, count for this entity.
26 (P5) Only contacts made May 14, 1995, and after, count for this entity.
27 (S0) Contacts with Rio de Oro (Spanish Sahara), EA9, also count for this entity.
28 (T2) Only contacts made January 1, 1976, and after, count for this entity.
29 (E7) New prefix for Bosnia - Herzegovina effective November 17, 2007. Contacts are valid
for this entity effective October 15, 1991.
30 (TL) Only contacts made August 13, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
31 (TN) Only contacts made August 15, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
32 (TR) Only contacts made August 17, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
33 (TT) Only contacts made August 11, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
34 (TU) Only contacts made August 7, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
35 (TY) Only contacts made August 1, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
36 (TZ) Only contacts made June 20, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
37 (V4,VP2) For DXCC credit for contacts made May 31, 1958, and before, see page 97, June
1958 QST.
38 (V6) Includes Yap Islands January 1, 1981, and after.
39 (XT) Only contacts made August 16, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
40 (YB) Only contacts made May 1, 1963, and after, count for this entity.
41 (Z3) Only contacts made September 8, 1991, and after, count for this entity.
42 (ZC4) Only contacts made August 16, 1960, and after, count for this entity.
43 (E4) Only contacts made February 1, 1999, and after, count for this entity.
44 (4W) Only contacts made March 1, 2000, and after, count for this entity.
45 (FK/C) Only contacts made March 23, 2000, and after, count for this entity.
46 (VP6) Only contacts made November 16, 2001, and after, count for this entity.
47 (4O) Only contacts made June 28, 2006, and after, count for this entity.
48 (KH8) Only contacts made July 22, 2006, and after, count for this entity.
49 (FJ) Only contacts made December 14, 2007, and after, count for this entity.
50 (PJ2) Only contacts made starting 0400 UTC October 10, 2010, or after, count for this
51 (PJ4) Only contacts made starting 0400 UTC October 10, 2010, or after, count for this
52 (PJ5, 6) Only contacts made starting 0400 UTC October 10, 2010, or after, count for this
53 (PJ7) Only contacts made starting 0400 UTC October 10, 2010, or after, count for this
54 (Z8) Only contacts made July 14, 2011, or after, count for this entity.
^ Also 3Y, 8J1, AT0, DP0, FT8Y, LU, OR4, VK0, R1AW, VP8, ZL5,
ZS1, ZX0, etc. QSL via country under whose auspices the particular
station is operating. The availability of a third-party traffic
agreement and a QSL Bureau applies to the country under whose
auspices the particular station is operating.
Zone Notes can be found with Prefix Cross References.

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

The simplicity of Morse code telegraphy

Morse code is an on-off code. It is not a binary code since the gaps between the dots and dashes and between the letters themselves are also significant. However, it is admirably suited to a simple transmitter, the emission or continuous wave (CW) from which only has to be turned on or off in order to transmit the code. That is why CW transmitters are easy to build. (The original spark transmitters were very simple, and are covered on other pages. Don’t build one - they wipe out huge segments of the RF spectrum, and are illegal.) Additional features of CW include a very narrow bandwidth, so that a lot of signals can exist side-by-side in a given frequency band, useful at short-wave frequencies which are crowded; and the fact that CW telegraphy can be copied through very heavy interference and at very low signal levels. The penalty for the low bandwidth is the fairly slow rate at which information can be sent.Hand sent CW telegraphy is now mostly an amusement for those of us who like 'pounding brass', and is no longer used commercially. High speed error-correcting codes, sent via UHF links to satellites where the large bandwidth is not a problem since there is plenty of spectrum space at UHF, have long superseded the brasspounder's art. Statements at the beginning of 1999 that Morse code is 'no longer used' were not however true. Oddly, there is one high-tech industry where Morse code is still used: airline pilots have to know it. Admittedly it is only at about 5 wpm, and only three letters at a time. Beacons which radiate in the medium wave region of the spectrum use three-letter identifiers sent very, very slowly in Morse.

Different versions of Morse code

Morse's original code was not quite the same as the one in use today. In particular C, O, R, Y and Z contained spaces within the letter codes which must have been tricky to handle, and the numbers were different. This ‘American’ morse code was in wide use until the 1920’s. For international use it was modified as a result of a conference in Berlin in 1851; this regularised the code on a more rational basis and eliminated the spaces within the letters, but equally important from a European point of view it provided codes for accented letters.
Both the original code and the current International Code use the same principle, that the commonest letters have the shortest codes. How to find out what the letter incidence is? Difficult now, from scratch, but Morse had a marvellous idea. He went to his local newspaper. There he found compositors making up pages by hand from individual letters; capital letters were in one case or tray of type, and this was set above the case of small letters. This is the origin of 'upper and lower case' letters. Morse simply counted the number of pieces of type for each letter, thinking, soundly enough, that this must be related to the number needed. Thus 'e' has the shortest code, 'dit', whereas 'z' is (now) 'da-da-di-dit' and 'q' (now) 'da-da-di-dah'. Notice that I write them as they sound; morse was a visual code in the early days, but it is now an aural one. An intriguing question: the symbol for V, di-di-di-dah, is also the opening phrase of Beethoven’s Fifth (V’th) Symphony. Morse was 20 years younger than Beethoven - was he a fan of the composer?
Morse can be decoded by computer, but that can't be much fun. Some of the earliest telegraphs used with land-lines employed an inked stylus which was moved sideways when a signal was received and which wrote on a moving paper tape.
Da-da-di-di-dit  di-di-di-da-da     da-di-dit  dit
di-da-dit  da-da-dah  da-di-dit
di-da-di-da-dit  di-di-di-da-di-dah
[73 de Rod AR SK:
best wishes (73) from (de)  Rod, end of message (AR), end of work (SK, i.e. closing down).]
Morse Codes
. _. _
_ . . ._ . . .
. .    ._ . _ .
D _ . ._ . .
. _ .. . _ .
_ _ ._ _ .
. . . .. . . .
I . .. .
_ . _ .. _ _ _
_ . __ . _
_____. _ . .
_ __ _
_ ._ .
.   ._ _ _
. . . . .. _ _ .
. . _ ._ _ . _
.    . .. _ .
. . .. . .
. . _. . _
. . . _. . . _
. _ _. _ _
. _ . ._ . . _
. .   . ._ . _ _
. . . ._ _ . .
. _ _ .. _ _ _ _
. . _ . .. . _ _ _
. . . _ .. . . _ _
. . . . _. . . . _
_ _ _. . . . .
. . . . . ._ . . . .
_ _ . ._ _ . . .
_ . . . ._ _ _ . .
_ . . __ _ _ _ .
_______ _ _ _ _
The apparently well-known SOS distress call is not quite what it seems. Fancifully represented as 'Save Our Souls', it actually means no such thing. It isn't even SOS; it is a procedural signal, and the three dots - three dashes - three dots are sent as a single signal without the gaps that would be present if three separate letters were being sent. The distress call is
and not
di-di-dit  dah-dah-dah  di-di-dit
The International use of the signal was proposed at the Second International Radio Telegraphic Convention in Berlin on November 3rd 1906; "SOS" had been part of the German Radio Regulations since April 1st 1905. The first Conference had been held in 1903, but the nature of procedural signals was not part of its remit. The 1906 Conference made the "SOS" signal obligatory from July 1st 1908.
Prior to the 1906 Conference there was no standard signal. Marconi operators used "CQD" from February 1904, the D being an extension to the standard CQ signal to signify distress. In 1906 the Navy suggested "NC", this being the equivalent flag signal, but by this time "SOS" was more or less in place.
Marconi operators were rather resistant to adopting "SOS" - one result was that distress signals from the Titanic were sent by its Marconi operators using both "CQD" and "SOS".

Surviving With the Help of Morse Code

Everyone has heard of Morse code. It has been almost 144 years since its inception back in May of 1844. Three Americans used the telegraph system invented by Samuel Morse, and perfected it by having the telegraph make indentions on the receiving paper tape, whenever there were incoming electric currents. This method has all but been abandoned in today’s society, in favor of modern digital communication, which is faster and more reliable. Modern day communications, however, require electronics and computers for them to work. Radio amateurs, wildlife experts and military across the world still use Morse code for large distance communications (which cover several thousand kilometers).

What is Morse Code?

Morse code is a system for delivering letters and characters, using an on and off system, as a way to send messages. It consists of three symbols: short beeps, long beeps and pauses. The code can be used as sound as a radio signal, as an electrical pulse with a Morse key over a telephone line, mechanically or optically transmitted (such as a blinking light) or with many other media. The two different states (such as sound or no sound) can be presented clearly. The sound method is used sometimes in emergencies by tapping on metallic surfaces. While still only limited, it is understandable, with a little practice, because of the characteristic rhythm of the code. This hearing technology is derived from the “knockers” from the early days of telegraphy, consisting of a strong relay in a concave acoustic mirror. The sound of the code was evident even before the invention of the loudspeaker.

Morse Code History

Many people assimilate Morse code with “SOS” which is very understandable. The first time an SOS was used was by the passenger ship RMS Slavonia in June of 1909, when it sank in the Azores. The most historic use of the SOS Morse code was concerning the Titanic disaster; however the code never was received by any surrounding ships or land-based authorities. The Californian was only 10 miles away, but the radio operator was not fully versed in Morse code so the message was not understood. He went to bed shortly thereafter and cut the radio off for the night. So, in a 1912 provision, the emergency frequencies are programmed to be listened to, every half hour.

Survival with Morse Code

Survival skills are techniques that a person can use if they find themselves in a potentially dangerous situation (i.e. natural disasters). Typically speaking, these techniques are usually meant to provide you with the basic necessities for survival: food, water, and shelter. These skills will help you think clearly, signal for help, navigate safely, avoid unpleasant interactions (usually with plants and animals), and perform emergency first aid. Survival skills are basic and common abilities that humans have used since the dawn of history. A number of skills can be used to make time spent in very remote places more enjoyable, and they can also be a way for you to thrive in the depths of nature. Most people can use these types of skills to better adapt themselves to nature and not just to survive. People who have been stranded have turned to Morse code when they are in dire need of rescue. Having flares, air horns or other survival items that can signal help is also important, but sometimes you do not have those things available. Morse code will always be there when you need it. History has shown that using Morse code to signal SOS (…—…) can save your life and will continue to save more, if the everyday person learns the code. The best example of this would be at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 when the young men of the United States Navy were trapped inside the sinking ships docked at the Harbor. Many men tried using Morse code to be rescued and it proved successful as 300 men were saved from the USS Oklahoma.
A recent example happened back in 2006, when an amateur sailor, who was traveling to Thorneham Marina from Emsworth in Hampshire, England, noticed that his 28 foot boat had started to take on water. The sailor had no emergency equipment aboard the ship except for a flashlight and the knowledge of Morse code. Little did he know that these two things would be all he needed to save his life. He started flashing his SOS signal and was spotted by a coast guard sailor, from nearby Hayling Island. The amateur boater was picked up, shortly thereafter.
The fact, plain and simple, is that using Morse code, to send distress signals or messages, can save your life. You can be the best survivalist in the world, but if you do not have Morse code in your repertoire, then you are missing a vital component. Survival techniques can come in several different varieties but they all have one common goal… to save your life.

What is the Meaning of SOS?

There is much mystery and misinformation wpe4.jpg (3194 bytes)surrounding the origin and use of maritime distress calls. Most of the general populace believes that "SOS" signifies "Save Our Ship." Casual students of radio history are aware that the use of "SOS" was preceded by "CQD." Why were these signals adopted? When were they used?
The practical use of wireless telegraphy was made possible by Guglielmo Marconi in the closing years of the 19th century. Until then, ships at sea out of visual range were very much isolated from shore and other ships. The wireless telegraphers used Morse Code to send messages. Morse Code is a way of "tapping" out letters using a series of dots (short signals) and dashes (long signals). Spoken, short signals are referred to as "dih" and long signals are referred to as "dah". The letter "A" is represented by a dot followed by a dash:
dotdash.gif (293 bytes)
wpe5.jpg (21793 bytes)By 1904 there were many trans-Atlantic British ships equipped with wireless communications. The wireless operators came from the ranks of railroad and postal telegraphers. In England a general call on the landline wire was a "CQ." "CQ" preceded time signals and special notices. "CQ" was generally adopted by telegraph and cable stations all over the world. By using "CQ," each station receives a message from a single transmission and an economy of time and labor was realized. Naturally, "CQ," went with the operators to sea and was likewise used for a general call. This sign for "all stations" was adopted soon after wireless came into being by both ships and shore stations.
In 1904, the Marconi company suggested the use of "CQD" for a distress signal. Although generally accepted to mean, "Come Quick Danger," that is not the case. It is a general call, "CQ," followed by "D," meaning distress. A strict interpretation would be "All stations, Distress."
At the second Berlin Radiotelegraphic Conference 1906, the subject of a danger signal was again addressed. Considerable discussion ensued and finally SOS was adopted. The thinking was that three dots, three dashes and three dots could not be misinterpreted.  It was to be sent together as one string.
sosgraphic.gif (488 bytes)
The Marconi Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony , 1918 states, "This signal [SOS] was adopted simply on account of its easy radiation and its unmistakable character. There is no special signification in the letter themselves, and it is entirely incorrect to put full stops between them [the letters]." All the popular interpretations of "SOS," "Save Our Ship," "Save Our Souls," or "Send Out Succour" are simply not valid. Stations hearing this distress call were to immediately cease handling traffic until the emergency was over and were likewise bound to answer the distress signal.
Although the use of "SOS" was officially ratified in 1908, the use of "CQD" lingered for several more years, especially in British service where it originated. It is well documented in personal accounts of Harold Bride, second Radio Officer, and in the logs of the SS Carpathia, that the Titanic first used "CQD" to call for help. When Captain Smith gave the order to radio for help, first radio officer Jack Phillips sent "CQD" six times followed by the Titanic call letters, "MGY." Later, at Brides suggestion, Phillips interspersed his calls with "SOS." In SOS to the Rescue, 1935, author Baarslag notes, "Although adopted intentionally in 1908, it [SOS] had not completely displaced the older 'CQD' in the British operators' affections." (It is interesting to observe that Marconi was waiting in New York to return home to England on the Titanic.)
The first recorded American use of "SOS" was in August of 1909. Wireless operator T. D. Haubner of the SS Arapahoe radioed for help when his ship lost its screw near Diamond Shoals, sometimes called the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." The call was heard by the United Wireless station "HA" at Hatteras. A few months later, the SS Arapahoe received an "SOS" distress call from the SS Iroquois. Radio Officer Haubner therefore has the distinction of being involved in the first two incidents of the use of "SOS" in America, the first as the sender and the second as the receiver. The U.S. did not officially adopt "SOS" until 1912, being slow to adopt international wireless standards.

SOS Accepted as Universal Distress Signal (1908): For centuries, ships became isolated as soon as they left visual range of shore and of other ships. This meant that if a ship encountered any problems while at sea, they could sink without anyone knowing their fate. This isolation ended with the invention of the wireless telegraph and Morse Code.
By 1904, many transatlantic ships had wireless telegraph capability on board. Realizing a need for a widely recognized distress call, the letters "CQD" became the first distress call. At the time, both on land and at sea, the letters "CQ" preceded any general message meant for all stations. Thus "CQD" means "All stations, distress" and not "Come Quick Danger."
At the Radiotelegraphic Conference held in Berlin in 1906, it was noted that there needed to be an internationally agreed upon and recognized signal for distress. No longer should Great Britain use "CQD" while Germany used "SOE." A single distress call was needed.
After much discussion, the letters "SOS" was agreed upon. Although many have later stated that the letters stand for "Save Our Ship," "Save Our Souls," "Sink or Swim," or "Send Out Succor," this is not true. The letters were chosen for the ease and unmistakability of three dots, three dashes, and three dots and not for the actual letters of "SOS."
After being agreed upon at the 1906 conference, the Morse code signal of three dots, three dashes, and then three dots (sent together, without spacing) went into effect as the international signal for distress on July 1, 1908.
Although now officially the international signal for distress, many people still used the old signal of "CQD." Even in 1912, when the Titanic began to sink, its radio operator placed the "CQD" distress signal until another operator suggested to also send the new "SOS" signal. It took several years for "SOS" to replace the old signal.

Morse Code (-- --- •-• ••• • -•-• --- -•• •)

Morse Code was invented by Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872), a painter and founder of the National Academy of Design. He conceived the basic idea of an electromagnetic telegraph in 1832, and produced the first working telegraph set in 1836. This made transmission possible over any distance. The first Morse Code message, "What hath God wrought?", was sent from Washington to Baltimore.
Today experienced operators copy received text without the need to write as they receive, and when transmitting, can easily converse at 20 to 30 words per minute. Morse Code will always remain a viable means of providing highly reliable communications during difficult communications conditions.
Morse Code can be transmitted using sound or light, as sometimes happens between ships at sea. It is used in emergencies to transmit distress signals when no other form of communication is available. The standard international distress signal is •••---••• (SOS)
Since December 2003, Morse Code has included the @ symbol: it is a combination of a and c: •--•-• and is the first change to the system since before World War II.
Morse Code can be used to transmit messages in English and many other languages. For languages not written with the Latin alphabet other versions of Morse Code are used. There are versions of Morse Code for the Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Hebrew alphabets, and for Japanese a version known as Wabun Code (和文モールス符号), which maps kana syllables to specific codes, is used.
The Chinese telegraph code is used to map Chinese characters to four-digit codes and then those digits are sent using standard Morse code. Korean Morse code uses the SKATS (Standard Korean Alphabet Transliteration System) mapping, originally developed to allow Korean to be typed on western typewriters.

Surfin’: Radioing the Titanic

By Stan Horzepa, WA1LOU
Contributing Editor
This week, Surfin’ hops on the wayback machine and revisits the 100 year old radio communications surrounding the Titanic disaster.
In case you missed it, the RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton, England to New York City. The sinking of Titanic caused the deaths of 1514 people in one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history. She carried 2224 people.
Sunday, April 15 is the 100th anniversary of the disaster.
Titanic was equipped with two 1.5 kW spark gap wireless telegraphs located in the radio room on the Bridge Deck. One set was used for transmitting messages and the other -- located in a soundproofed booth -- for receiving them. The signals were transmitted through two parallel wires strung between the ship’s masts, 50 feet (15 meters) above the funnels to avoid the corrosive smoke. The system was one of the most powerful in the world, with a range of up to 1000 miles.
The radios were owned and operated by the Marconi Company... and was intended primarily for passengers rather than ship operations. The function of the two wireless operators -- both Marconi employees -- was to operate a 24-hour service, sending and receiving wireless telegrams for passengers. They did, however, also pass on professional ship messages, such as weather reports and ice warnings.
Those “professional ship messages” are the subject of a BBC Discovery programTitanic -- In Her Own Words that is now online on the BBC World Service website. According to the program notes, “the BBC’s Sean Coughlan narrates one of the most authentic versions of events in existence. Using voice synthesis to recreate the strange, twitter-like, mechanical brevity of the original Morse code, this program brings to life the tragedy through the ears of the wireless operators in the area that night.”
Also of interest is a BBC News Magazine article about Titanic’s radio operations titled Titanic: The Final Messages from a Stricken Ship.
The RMS Titanic Radio Page has more information about the disaster from the radio perspective including the text of the radio messages. And Allan Brett, VK2EBA, takes another look at the subject in his article titled “Wireless and theTitanic.”
Finally, IEEE Spectrum features a “Techwise Conversations” podcast that discusses how the Titanic launched a century of emergency response technologies.
Thank you, Gary Glatt, KC7WFE, for the heads-up about the BBC Discovery program.
Until next time, keep on surfin’!
Editor’s note: Stan Horzepa, WA1LOU, seeks the unusual in radio. To contact Stan, send e-mail or add comments to the WA1LOU blog.

Inspiration and Perspiration -- RMS Titanic Distress Signals Heard Again

The 100th anniversary of the Titanic disaster involved many commemorative events around the world, from Belfast, Ireland where the ship was constructed to the North Atlantic Ocean where it now lays to rest. As a former radio officer in the US Merchant Marine I hold a keen interest in all things Titanic. So my wife and I jumped at the opportunity to participate in commemorative ceremonies aboard the motor vessel Azamara Journey -- one of two cruise ships to mark this solemn event from the site where the Titanic sank April 15, 1912.
Of course, Amateur Radio was integral to our plans from the beginning. We learned of the cruise only five weeks before the scheduled departure date, so time was of the essence. Operating maritime mobile from a foreign flag cruise ship requires the issuance of an amateur license from the country where the ship is registered (in this case Malta). I contacted the ARRL for assistance and learned the United States and Malta have no reciprocal licensing agreement. The issuance of a new Amateur Radio “Sound” license would be required.
In an effort to expedite the licensing process, I reached out to local hams using e-mail addresses obtained from qrz.com. In the true spirit of international friendship and Amateur Radio, Henry (9H1CD) was kind enough to contact the Malta Communications Authority (MCA), advise them of my intentions and follow up on my behalf. Within a few days I received e-mail from the MCA indicating a license could be issued at no cost by completing an online application. I submitted the application without delay and one week prior to departure I had an e-mail copy of my Maltese license (9H3AJ) in hand.
The next step in my quest to operate Amateur Radio from the ship would prove more difficult. From the outset, my hope was to enrich passengers' experience by offering to send messages home via wireless telegraphy from the site of theTitanic on the 100th anniversary of the sinking. My plan was to check into a regional HF CW net and leverage the ARRL National Traffic System for message delivery. This process would replicate the radio procedures used by ships at sea prior to the days of Internet cafes at sea and maritime satellite communications.
The transmission of passenger messages via HF radiotelegraphy was the primary purpose of the wireless installation aboard the Titanic (and the norm during my tenure as the Chief Radio Officer aboard several passenger ships in the 1980s). Unfortunately, concern over the disclosure of personal information, safety issues and transmission of the ship’s position posed risk-management challenges I could not overcome in the short time available.
Although we were booked into the Owner’s Suite (on the top deck of the ship with a huge wrap-around balcony) and the Yaesu FT-857, LDG antenna tuner and Buddipole HF portable dipole (graciously lent to me by Scott, K2LSF) were calling to me, Amateur Radio operations were not to be. As one can imagine, it took every ounce of my self-restraint not to put that rig on the air for this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity!
Notwithstanding the setback to Amateur Radio operations, the Titanic’s distress call would be heard again! On the night of April 14 a satellite link was established to David Myrick, VO1CQD, at the Myrick Wireless Interpretation Center at Cape Race, Newfoundland and the Titanic’s original distress call was retransmitted:


CQD was the call for distress initially used by the Titanic in 1912; MGY was the ship’s wireless call sign. Appropriately, the Myrick Center is at the site of the original Marconi station that handled much of the Titanic’s original distress traffic. An audience in Trespassy, Canada who gathered for a night of remembrance witnessed the reenactment as part of a schedule of events that included a Skypecall from film director James Cameron and a lecture by Titanic historian Parks Stephenson.
My thanks to Captain Jason Ikiadis, Master of the MV Azamara Journey for allowing the Titanic distress reenactment to take place; Mr Don Solusby for his documentation of the event, and to the many others who participated in making this another “night to remember.” -- Joseph Allen, N0MU

Monday, June 4, 2012

Michelle Macaluso (FoxNews) QSO With 9M6DXX

Michelle Macaluso from FoxNews operating W6JWK and talked to Steve 9M6DXX. Michelle is a Fox News young reporter, John W6JWK is a ham who lives in California and Steve lives in Kota Kinabalu.

PSK31 Using iPad And Elecraft KX3

Using iSDR On iPad With Elecraft KX3

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