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Monday, January 28, 2013

An Overview of Modern Digital HF Radio Operating Modes


TOR is an acronym for Teleprinting Over Radio. It is traditionally used to describe the three popular "error free" communication modes - AMTOR, PACTOR and G-TOR. The main method for error correction is from a technique called ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) which is sent by the receiving station to verify any missed data. Since they share the same method of transmission (FSK), they can be economically provided together in one Terminal Node Controller (TNC) radio modem and easily operated with any modern radio transceiver. TOR methods that do not use the ARQ hand-shake can be easily operated with readily available software programs for personal computers. For the new and less complex digital modes, the TNC is replaced by an on-board sound card in the personal computer.

AMTOR is an FSK mode that is hardly used by radio amateurs in the 21st Century. While a robust mode, it only has 5 bits (as did its predecessor RTTY) and can not transfer extended ASCII or any binary data. With a set operating rate of 100 baud, it does not effectively compete with the speed and error correction of more modern ARQ modes like Pactor. The non-ARQ version of this mode is known as FEC, and known as SITOR-B by the Marine Information services.
To hear what an Amtor signal sounds like, click the sound icon

PACTOR is an FSK mode and is a standard on modern Multi-Mode TNCs. It is designed with a combination of packet and Amtor Techniques. Although this mode is also fading in use, it is the most popular ARQ digital mode on amateur HF today and primarily used by amateurs for sending and receiving email over the radio. This mode is a major advancement over AMTOR, with its 200 baud operating rate, Huffman compression technique and true binary data transfer capability.
To hear what a Pactor signal sounds like, click the sound icon

G-TOR (Golay -TOR) is an FSK mode that offers a fast transfer rate compared to Pactor. It incorporates a data inter-leaving system that assists in minimizing the effects of atmospheric noise and has the ability to fix garbled data. G-TOR tries to perform all transmissions at 300 baud but drops to 200 baud if difficulties are encountered and finally to 100 baud. (The protocol that brought back those good photos of Saturn and Jupiter from the Voyager space shots was devised by M.Golay and now adapted for ham radio use.) GTOR is a proprietary mode developed by Kantronics. Because it is only available with Kantronics multi-mode TNCs, it has never gained in popularity and is rarely used by radio amateurs.
To hear what a G-TOR signal sounds like, click the sound icon

PACTOR II is a robust and powerful PSK mode which operates well under varying conditions. It uses strong logic, automatic frequency tracking; it is DSP based and as much as 8 times faster then Pactor. Both PACTOR and PACTOR-2 use the same protocol handshake, making the modes compatible. As with the original Pactor, it is rarely used by radio amateurs since the development of the new PC based sound card modes. Also, like GTOR, it is a proprietary mode owned by SCS and only available with their line of multi-mode TNC controllers. To hear what a PactorII signal sounds like, click the sound icon

CLOVER is a PSK mode which provides a full duplex simulation. It is well suited for HF operation (especially under good conditions), however, there are differences between CLOVER modems. The original modem was named CLOVER-I, the latest DSP based modem is named CLOVER-II. Clovers key characteristics are band-width efficiency with high error-corrected data rates. Clover adapts to conditions by constantly monitoring the received signal. Based on this monitoring, Clover determines the best modulation scheme to use.
To hear what a Clover signal sounds like, click the sound icon

RTTY or "Radio Teletype" is a FSK mode that has been in use longer than any other digital mode (except for morse code). RTTY is a very simple technique which uses a five-bit code to represent all the letters of the alphabet, the numbers, some punctuation and some control characters. At 45 baud (typically) each bit is 1/45.45 seconds long, or 22 ms and corresponds to a typing speed of 60 WPM. There is no error correction provided in RTTY; noise and interference can have a seriously detrimental effect. Despite its relative disadvantages, RTTY is still popular with many radio amateurs. This mode has now been implemented with commonly available PC sound card software.
To hear what a RTTY signal sounds like, click the sound icon

PSK31 is the first new digital mode to find popularity on HF bands in many years. It combines the advantages of a simple variable length text code with a narrow bandwidth phase-shift keying (PSK) signal using DSP techniques. This mode is designed for "real time" keyboard operation and at a 31 baud rate is only fast enough to keep up with the typical amateur typist. PSK31 enjoys great popularity on the HF bands today and is presently the standard for live keyboard communications. Most of the ASCII characters are supported. A second version having four (quad) phase shifts (QPSK) is available that provides Forward Error Correction (FEC) at the cost of reduced Signal to Noise ratio. Since PSK31 was one of the first new digital sound card modes to be developed and introduced, there are numerous programs available that support this mode - most of the programs available as "freeware".
To hear what a PSK31 signal sounds like, click the sound icon

HF PACKET (300 baud) radio is a FSK mode that is an adaption of the very popular Packet radio used on VHF (1200 baud) FM amateur radio. Although the HF version of Packet Radio has a much reduced bandwidth due to the noise levels associated with HF operation, it maintains the same protocols and ability to "node" many stations on one frequency. Even with the reduced bandwidth (300 baud rate), this mode is unreliable for general HF ham communications and is mainly used to pass routine traffic and data between areas where VHF repeaters maybe lacking. HF and VHF Packet has recently enjoyed a resurgence in popularity since it is the protocol used by APRS - Automatic Position Reporting System mostly on 2 meter VHF and 30 meter HF.
To hear what a packet signal sounds like, click the sound icon

HELLSCHREIBER is a method of sending and receiving text using facsimile technology. This mode has been around along time. It was actually developed by Germany prior to World War II! The recent use of PC sound cards as DSP units has increased the interest in Hellschreiber and many programs now support this new...well I mean, old mode. The single-tone version (Feld-Hell) is the method of choice for HF operation. It is an on-off keyed system with 122.5 dots/second, or about a 35 WPM text rate, with a narrow bandwidth (about 75 Hz). Text characters are "painted" on the screen, as apposed to being decoded and printed. Thus, many different fonts can be used for this mode including some basic graphic characters. A new "designer" flavor of this mode called PSK HELL has some advantage for weak signal conditions. As with other "fuzzy modes" it has the advantage of using the "human processor" for error correction; making it the best overall mode for live HF keyboard communications. Feld-Hell also has the advantage of having a low duty cycle meaning your transmitter will run much cooler with this mode.
To hear what a Hellschreiber signal sounds like, click the sound icon

MT63 is a new DSP based mode for sending keyboard text over paths that experience fading and interference from other signals. It is accomplished by a complex scheme to encode text in a matrix of 64 tones over time and frequency. This overkill method provides a "cushion" of error correction at the receiving end while still providing a 100 WPM rate. The wide bandwidth (1Khz for the standard method) makes this mode less desirable on crowded ham bands such as 20 meters. A fast PC (166 Mhz or faster) is needed to use all functions of this mode. MT63 is not commonly used by amateurs because of its large bandwidth requirement and the difficulty in tuning in an MT63 transmission.
To hear what a MT63 signal sounds like, click the sound icon

THROB is yet another new DSP sound card mode that attempts to use Fast Fourier Transform technology (as used by waterfall displays). THROB is actually based on tone pairs with several characters represented by single tones. It is defined as a "2 of 8 +1 tone" system, or more simply put, it is based on the decode of tone pairs from a palette of 9 tones. The THROB program is an attempt to push DSP into the area where other methods fail because of sensitivity or propagation difficulties and at the same time work at a reasonable speed. The text speed is slower than other modes but the author (G3PPT) has been improving his MFSK (Multiple Frequency Shift Keying) program. Check his web site for the latest developments.
To hear what a Throb signal sounds like, click the sound icon

MFSK16 is an advancement to the THROB mode and encodes 16 tones. The PC sound card for DSP uses Fast Fourier Transform technology to decode the ASCII characters, and Constant Phase Frequency Shift Keying to send the coded signal. Continuous Forward Error Correction (FEC) sends all data twice with an interleaving technique to reduce errors from impulse noise and static crashes. A new improved Varicode is used to increase the efficiency of sending extended ASCII characters, making it possible to transfer short data files between stations under fair to good conditions. The relatively wide bandwidth (316 Hz) for this mode allows faster baud rates (typing is about 42 WPM) and greater immunity to multi path phase shift. A second version called MFSK8 is available with a lower baud rate (8) but greater reliability for DXing when polar phase shift is a major problem. Both versions are available in a nice freeware Windows program created by IZ8BLY.
To hear what an MFSK16 signal sounds like, click the sound icon

JT65 is intended for extremely weak but slowly-varying signals, such as those found on troposcatter or Earth-Moon-Earth (EME, or "moonbounce") paths. It can decode signals many decibels below the noise floor, and often allows amateurs to successfully exchange contact information without signals being audible to the human ear. Like the other digital modes, multiple-frequency shift keying is employed. However unlike the other digitalmodes, messages are transmitted as atomic units after being compressed and then encoded with a process known as forward error correction (or "FEC"). The FEC adds redundancy to the data, such that all of a message may be successfully recovered even if some bits are not received by the receiver. (The particular code used for JT65 is Reed-Solomon.) Because of this FEC process, messages are either decoded correctly or not decoded at all, with very high probability. After messages are encoded, they are transmitted using MFSK with 65 tones. Operators have also begun using the JT65 mode for contacts on the HF bands, often using QRP (very low transmit power usually less than 5 watts). While the mode was not originally intended for HF use, its popularity has resulted in several new programs being developed and enhancements to the original WSJT in order to facilitate HF operation.
To hear what a JT65 signal sounds like, click the sound icon

Olivia was developed by Pawel Jalocha and is a ham radio digital mode designed to work in difficult (low s/n ratios plus multipath propagation) conditions on HF bands. The signal can be decoded even when it is 10-14 db below the noise floor (i.e. when the amplitude of the noise is slightly over 3 times that of the signal). It can also decode well under other noise, QSB, QRM, flutter caused by polar path propagation and even auroral conditions. Currently the only other digital modes that match or exceed Olivia in sensitivity are some of the WSJT program modes that include JT65A and JT65-HF which are certainly limited in usage and definitely not true conversation capable.

The standard Olivia formats (bandwidth/tones) are 125/4, 250/8, 500/16, 1000/32, and 2000/64. However the most commonly used formats in order of use are 500/16, 500/8, 1000/32, 250/8, and 1000/16. This can cause some confusion and problems with so many formats and so many other digital modes. After getting used to the sound and look of Olivia in the waterfall, though, it becomes easier to identify the format when you encounter it. About 90% of all current Olivia activity on the air is one of the 2 formats : 500/16 and 1000/32.

DominoEX is a digital mode using MFSK (Multi-Frequency Shift Keying), used to send data (for example, hand-typed text) by radio. MFSK sends data using many different tones, sent one at a time. Each tone element ('symbol') can carry several bits of data. Most other digital modes uses each tone to represent only one bit. Thus the symbol rate is much lower for the same data rate when MFSK is used. This is beneficial, since it leads to high sensitivity with good data rate and modest bandwidth. More importantly, low symbol rates are less effected by multi-path reception timing effects.

Therefore MFSK is ideal for HF operation since it has good noise rejection and good immunity to most propagation distortion effects which adversely affect reception of other modes. MFSK is already used on HF by modes such as MFSK16, ALE, THROB and Olivia, but DominoEX improves on the MFSK types of modes by employing an Incremental Frequency Keying strategy. DominoEX is also a reasonably narrow-band mode along the lines of MFSK16 or RTTY.

A narrow-band application of MFSK presents some challenges. The main problem is that radio transceivers with high stability and tuning accuracy are usually required, since very small frequency steps are used for example when ompared with RTTY. MFSK is also prone to interference from data arriving from different ionospheric paths, and like many modes, it is prone to interference from fixed carriers within the data passband. Forward Error Correction (FEC) can be deployed to reduce errors, but such modes can become slow and difficult to operate or the modes consume an excessive an excessive amount of bandwidth. With DominoEX, a different approach was taken, concentrating on perfecting the design for best Near Vertical Incidence Signal or NVIS reception without requiring FEC. All the inherent MFSK problems are also avoided or much reduced.

DominoEX uses a series of new techniques to counter the general limitations of MFSK. To avoid tuning problems, IFK (Incremental Frequency Keying) is used, where the data is represented not by the frequency of each tone, but by the frequency difference between one tone and the next, an equivalent idea to differential PSK. An additional technique, called Offset Incremental Keying (IFK+) is used to manage the tone sequence in order to counter inter-symbol interference caused by multi-path reception. This gives the mode a great improvement in robustness.

Like Olivia above, there are several variations of the DominoEX mode: DominoEX4, DominoEX5, DominoEX8, DominoEX11, DominoEX16 and finally DominoEX22. The higher the number the faster the speed of transmission so difficult conditions it may be wise to use the slower speed, while good conditions might allow for faster speeds.

Contestia is a digital mode directly derived from Olivia but not quite as robust. It is more of a compromise between speed and performance. It was developed by Nick Fedoseev, UT2UZ who is also one of the key developers of the MixW Mult-digital mode software application used by many hams. Contestia sounds almost identical to Olivia, can be configured in as many ways, but has essentially twice the speed.

Contestia has 40 formats just like Olivia. The formats vary in bandwidth (125,250,500,1000, and 2000hz) and number of tones used (2,4,8,16,32,64,128, or 256). The most commonly used formats right now seem to be 250/8, 500/16, and 1000/32.

So just how well does Contestia perform under very weak signal conditions. Surprisingly well as it handles QRM, QRN, and QSB very easily. It decodes below the noise level but experience has shown that Olivia still outperforms Contestia depending on which variation of the modes are used. However, Contestia is twice as fast as Olivia on a given variation of each respective mode. It is an excellent weak signal, conversational, QRP, and long distance digital mode. When using it for keyboard to keyboard conversation under fair to good conditions, it can be more preferable to many hams than Olivia because of the faster speed.

Contestia get it's increased speed by using a smaller symbol block size (32) than Olivia (64) and by a using 6-bit decimal character set rather than 7-bit ASCII set that Olivia does. Because it has a reduced character set and does not print out in both upper and lower case. Some traffic nets might not want to use this mode because it does not support upper and lower case characters and extended characters found in many documents and messages. For normal digital chats that does not pose any problem, but also because of these limitations, Contestia has not seen much use and is more of a novelty mode.

Continuous wave

A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency; and in mathematical analysis, of infinite duration. Continuous wave is also the name given to an early method of radio transmission, in which a carrier wave is switched on and off. Information is carried in the varying duration of the on and off periods of the signal, for example by Morse code in early radio. In early wireless telegraphy radio transmission, CW waves were also known as "undamped waves", to distinguish this method from damped wave transmission.



Very early radio transmitters used a spark gap to produce radio-frequency oscillations in the transmitting antenna. The signals produced by these spark-gap transmitters consisted of brief pulses of radio frequency oscillations which died out rapidly to zero, called damped waves. The disadvantage of damped waves was that they produced electromagnetic interference that spread over the transmissions of stations at other frequencies. Mathematically, the extremely wideband excitation provided by the spark gap was bandpass filtered by the self-oscillating antenna side circuit, which because of its simple construction, also had a relatively broad and badly controlled filter characteristic.
This motivated efforts to produce radio frequency oscillations that decayed more slowly. Strictly speaking an unmodulated, continuous carrier has no bandwidth and cannot interfere with signals at other frequencies, but conveys no information either. Thus it is commonly understood that the act of keying the carrier on and off is necessary. However, in order to bring the bandwidth of the resulting signal under control, the buildup and decay of the radio frequency envelope needed to be slower than in the early spark gap implementations.

When this is done, the spectrum of the signal approaches that of a continuous sinusoidal oscillation, while temporally its amplitude does vary between zero and full carrier strength. As such, the resulting narrower bandwidth mode of operation is to this day described as "continuous wave". The resulting signal allows many radio stations to share a given band of frequencies without noticeable mutual interference.

In on-off carrier keying, if the carrier wave is turned on or off abruptly, communications theory can show that the bandwidth will be large; if the carrier turns on and off more gradually, the bandwidth will be smaller. What is transmitted in the extra bandwidth used by a transmitter that turns on/off more abruptly is known as key clicks. Certain types of power amplifiers used in transmission may increase the effect of key clicks.

The first transmitters capable of producing continuous wave, the Alexanderson alternator and vacuum tube oscillators, became widely available after World War I.

Early radio transmitters could not be modulated to transmit speech, and so CW radio telegraphy was the only form of communication available. CW still remained a viable form of radio communication for many years after voice transmission was perfected, because simple transmitters could be used. The low bandwidth of the code signal, due in part to low information transmission rate, allowed very selective filters to be used in the receiver which blocked out much of the atmospheric noise that would otherwise reduce the intelligibility of the signal.


Continuous-wave radio was called radiotelegraphy because like the telegraph, it worked by means of a simple switch to transmit Morse code. However, instead of controlling the electricity in a cross-country wire, the switch controlled the power sent to a radio transmitter. This mode is still in common use by amateur radio operators.

A continuous-wave radar system is one where a continuous wave is transmitted by one aerial while a second aerial receives the reflected radio energy.

In military communications and amateur radio, the terms "CW" and "Morse code" are often used interchangeably, despite the distinctions between the two. Morse code may be sent using direct current in wires, sound, or light, for example. A carrier wave is keyed on and off to represent the dots and dashes of the code elements. The carrier's amplitude and frequency remains constant during each code element. At the receiver, the received signal is mixed with a heterodyne signal from a BFO (beat frequency oscillator) to change the radio frequency impulses to sound. Though most commercial traffic has now ceased operation using Morse it is still popular with amateur radio operators. Non-directional beacons used in air navigation use Morse to transmit their identifier.


Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_wave




DIREKTORI RADIO AMATOR MALAYSIA


SEBAHAGIAN RADIO AMATOR DI MALAYSIA

Senarai ini adalah sebahagian daripada Radio Amator di Malaysia yang di ketahui maklumatnya. Walau bagaimana pun anda adalah sdigalakan untuk memperbetulkan maklumat yang terkini dengan menghubungi Webmaster dengan mengisi borang di hujung laman ini. TQ.

9M2/JA8ELC,YOSHIO OKAMOTO,297-21-2 MENARA BANGSAR,JLN MAAROF, 59000 K LUMPUR.
9M2A,MUHAMAD AMIN MAHMUD,24 JLN AU 1C/3K,TMN KERAMAT PERMAI, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M2AA,MUHAMAD AMIN MAHMUD,24 JLN AU 1C/3K,TMN KERAMAT PERMAI, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M2AB,GURCHARAN SINGH,31-K, JLN ZOO,AYER ITAM, 11500 P PINANG.
9M2AC,MAMORU SAITO,75 JLN GASING,P JAYA, 46050 SELANGOR.
9M2AD,ANGELA LEE MEI FOONG
9M2AF,YAU HOCK HENG,12 JLN SS 14/3-C,SUBANG JAYA, 47500 SELANGOR.
9M2AG,KEIKO IZAKI
9M2AH,CHE MAT CHE MAN,KG CANGKAT KABU,JELEMPOK, 2600 ARAU PERLIS.
9M2AI,AMAT B ONGGAK,117 JLN INTAN,GOMBAK, 53100 K LUMPUR.
9M2AJ,ALICE K L GOH,4 JLN DERUMUN,DAMANSARA HEIGHTS, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2AK,LOW AH KIM,36-2 JLN MEGA MENDUNG,BANDAR PARK, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2AL,ALLAN OOI EWE CHYE,22K LRG 7,TMN BUNGA RAYA, 8000 SUNGAI PATANI KEDAH.
9M2AM,ANUAR MUSHADDAD,2 JLN NIRWANA 38,TMN NIRWANA, 68000 AMPANG SELANGOR.
9M2AN,TAKAO IZAKI
9M2AP,RAMLI BIN SHUHAIMI,11. LRG SETIA PUSPA 4,MEDAN DAMANSARA, 47400 K LUMPUR.
9M2AR,ABD RAHMAN ABD RAOF,6 LRG BAYU,JLN SULTANAH, 5350 A SETAR KEDAH.
9M2AS,AZIZAN B AHMAD,21 LRG SEJAHTERA,KAMPONG HIJRAH, JITRA, 6000 KEDAH.
9M2AT,AZELAN B TALIB,27, JLN DAHLIA 16,TMN IRA, 1000 KANGAR PERLIS.
9M2AU,ABDUL AZIZ BIN MOHD NOOR,9 JLN 3/4B,BANDAR BARU BANGI, 43650 SELANGOR.
9M2AV,AVATAR SINGH,15 RD 5/10-B, 46000 P JAYA SELANGOR.
9M2AW,ARMUGOM A/L MUNUSAMY,KAMPONG BARU,BATU 7, 9310 KUALA KETIL KEDAH.
9M2AX,ETSUO TANAKA.
9M2AY,ALAN LEE MUN KHAN
9M2AZ,AZIZ BIN HUSSIN,6,JLN PINGGIRAN 3/11,PINGGIRAN BATU CAVES, BATU CAVE, 68100 SELANGOR.
9M2BA,AZMI ABDULLAH,U.S.M., 11100 P PINANG.
9M2BB,YEO SIEW LIM
9M2BC,ALBRECHT BAER,19, JLN SELADANG,TMN CENTURY, 80250 JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR.
9M2BD,MOHAMED AMIR B NGADENAN,BATU 18 1/4 KG PINANG,MASJID TANAH, 78300 MELAKA.
9M2BE,DORIS ELIZABETH BELL,11 JLN OLDHAM, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2BF,LEE MUN WOH,UNIT 5.02 BICMA,LOT 2, JLN 51A/243, P. JAYA, 46100 SELANGOR.
9M2BG,BERNARD GOMEZ,85 RD 8,TMN BUKIT ANGGERIK, CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2BH,LIM PHANG CHOO,21 JLN 14/57,P JAYA, 46100 SELANGOR.
9M2BJ,CHAI SIEW MOI,68 MAIN RD,KULAI, 81000 JOHOR.
9M2BK,LOH JIN GHEE,19 JLN SUNGAI KELIAN,TG BUNGA, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2BL,ABDUL GHANI BIN ABAS, 5 JLN USJ 2/4F,SUBANG JAYA, 47600 SELANGOR.
9M2BM,BO GUNNAR MEJNER,72 JLN ATTINA 2,TMN TUN DR ISMAIL, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2BP,HO LAI CHEE,73 JLN LIMPOON,BATU PAHAT, 83000 JOHOR.
9M2BR,MOHAMAD B ABD RAHAMAN,91, JLN TERATAI 1/9D,TMN PUTERA, 68000 AMPANG, SELANGOR.
9M2BS,EU KHUAN KEW,11 GLUGOR AVE,JELUTONG, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2BT,LEE CHEE HIN,22 JLN SERAI,TMN CHERAS, 56100 K LUMPUR.
9M2BV,MART SAKALOV,4-10-5 TIVOLI VILLAS,JLN MEDANG TANDAK BANGSAR, 59100 K LUMPUR.
9M2BW,BURHANUDIN WAHI,P.P.SAINS FIZIK U.S.M.,MINDEN, 18000 PENANG.
9M2BX,LAU KOK HIN,5, JLN JESSELTON, 10450 P PINANG.
9M2BY,ARVE VARLEITE,UNIT 1-12-3 HORIZON TOWER,TANJUNG BUNGAH, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2BZ,SHIN ICHIRO TSURUOKA,P.O. BOX 13468, 50812 K LUMPUR.
9M2CA,CHRISTIAN KONWIARZ
9M2CC,CLARENCE C WESTWOOD,30 MEDAN TEMBAGA,ISLAND PARK, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2CE,MOHD NOOR B PUTEH,4-9-2 MENARA CENDERAWASIH,JLN AU 5/56, ULU KLANG, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M2CF,CHOW WAI CHEONG,BLOCK G-14-8,TMN BUKIT JAMBUL, 11900 P PINANG.
9M2CG,EUSTACE BOUDVILLE,12-A PHILIPS RD, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2CH,LEE HEE CHEN
9M2CJ,THIAM CHEE MING,28 LRG BURUNG SINTAR SATU,TMN BUKIT MALURI, KEPONG, 52100 K LUMPUR.
9M2CK,CHOW KWOK FAI,71 JLN SEMPILAI,TMN TENAGA JLN CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2CL,CHIN SEA COL
9M2CM,TOMMY C M LIM,27 JLN SS4C/18,P JAYA, 47301 SELANGOR.
9M2CN,MARTIN MENDIS,44 JLN SEPUI,TMN KOLAM AIR, 80200 JOHOR BAHRU JOHOR.
9M2CO,ADRIAN OOI CHEONG BAN
9M2CR,C W C RICHARDS,73 JLN PANTAI,PORT DICKSON, 71000 NEGRI SEMBILAN.
9M2CS,CHARLES SYMONS,4 LRG 16/7B,P JAYA, 46200 SELANGOR.
9M2CT,HENRY TAN CHOON TECK,401 TMN ASEAN,MALIM, 75250 MELAKA.
9M2CU,CHAN PIK LING
9M2CV,PHANG CHONG YUN,485 MK 16 HILL RAILWAY RD,AYER ITAM, 11500 P PINANG.
9M2CW,CHIN PAK KOOI,162 JLN PERAJURIT,IPOH GARDEN EAST, 31400 IPOH PERAK.
9M2CX,CHAN CHONG KHEE,10 JLN WINDSOR,IPOH, 30250 PERAK.
9M2CY,CHONG YEN LEE
9M2CZ,ISMAIL B. CHEMBENG
9M2DA,DEEN BIN ATAN,R S 37 JLN HASHIM, 84000 MUAR JOHOR.
9M2DB,ALEX CHOON MOY HUAT,6 JLN USJ 5/3,SUBANG JAYA, 47600 P JAYA, SELANGOR.
9M2DD,D D DEVAN,43 JLN BUKIT MIDAH,TMN MIDAH, JLN CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2DE,AMIR BIN SAAD,LOT F8, 4-7 KAWASAN 8,TMN MELAWATI SETAPAK, 53100 K LUMPUR.
9M2DF,DAVID JOHN WILKINS,162 JLN PERAJURIT,IPOH GARDEN EAST, 31400 IPOH PERAK.
9M2DI,MOHAMED DANIAL B RAMLI,24 LRG 37,TMN PETANI JAYA, 8000 SUNGAI PATANI KEDAH.
9M2DJ,CHONG YIN YOONG,60 AH QUEE ST, 10200 P PINANG.
9M2DL,DAVID LIM MENG LIAM,37 LRG TITIWANGSA 8,OFF JLN TITIWANGSA, 53200 K LUMPUR.
9M2DM,TAKASHI SUZUKI
9M2DR,KANAGALINGAM,21 JLN TMN SEPUTEH 6,TMN SEPUTEH, 50470 K LUMPUR.
9M2DS,ABDULLAH B ABD SAMAD,16 JLN MARUDI,TMN BERINGIN, JINJANG UTARA, 52000 K LUMPUR.
9M2DT,DAVID H T TAN,4 JLN DERUMUN,DAMANSARA HEIGHTS, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2DW,DATUK HJ. TAN BIN HUSSAIN,50 LRG SEKOLAH,JLN ABDUL RAHMAN, 84000 MUAR JOHOR.
9M2DX,AHMAD FAIZAL MOHD ZAIN,JBT KEJ, UKM, 43600 BANGI SELANGOR.
9M2EC,LEE SIEW MEI,9 JLN DAGANG 3A,TMN DAGANG JAYA, 68000 AMPANG SELANGOR.
9M2EE,SARJIET SINGH
9M2EF,SERIN SINGH,2 LRG SETIA JASA 5,DAMANSARA HEIGHTS, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2EG,MOHAMED ARIFFIN,6 JLN LANG,IPOH, 30000 PERAK.
9M2EJ,EDWARD JOHN GRAPES WILSON,2050 JLN SG GLUGOR, 11700 P PINANG.
9M2EK,GOH THYE YEN,5 JLN 57-D,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2EN,TAKANORI OKA, 172 DESA DAMANSARA CONDO,99, JLN SETIAKASIH, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2EO,ERIC OH BOON PENG,9 JLN DAGANG 3A,TMN DAGANG JAYA, 68000 AMPANG SELANGOR.
9M2EU,SUZUMU ITOH,101B-3-4 CHEKTAN TERRACES,JLN DAMAI, 55000 K LUMPUR.
9M2EV,JOSEPH KONG KENG CHO,1 LENGKOK KANDY IPOH GARDEN,OFF MAXWELL RD, 30100 IPOH PERAK.
9M2EW,SHAHRIZAL SULAIMAN
9M2FC,CHAN BOON LAI
9M2FF,MOHD YUSOFF B MOHAMED,4 JLN LIMAU BALI 4/4E,SHAH ALAM, 40000 SELANGOR.
9M2FH,F JASPER HAVELOCK,10 JLN KAPOR,REGENT PARK, 93150 KUCHING, SARAWAK.
9M2FI,THAM YEN THIM,27-A JLN MARIE PITCHAY,HILLSIDE, TG BUNGAH, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2FK,ESHEE RAZAK,P.O.BOX 13, 10700 P PINANG.
9M2FL,CHEN KOK HOON,2931-P TMN MUHIBBAH,OFF JLN SULTANAH, 5350 A SETAR KEDAH.
9M2FO,CHAN KAM WENG,167 JLN INANG SATU,TMN ISKANDAR, 80050 JOHOR BAHRU JOHOR.
9M2FR,TAN YEW HOCK,5 LENGKOK CAVENDISH,IPOH, 30250 PERAK.
9M2FS,WEE THIAM SOON,92 BANDAR HILIR RD, 75000 MELAKA.
9M2FT,MONTY HJ MOHAMED,688 JLN SAUJANA,TMN SAUJANA JAYA TAIPING, 34000 PERAK.
9M2FX,KAMAL TAN B DATUK TAN,276 JLN PERMATA 5,TMN PERMATA, 53300 K LUMPUR.
9M2FZ,LEONG WEI CHING,49 JLN SS2/93,P JAYA, 47300 SELANGOR.
9M2GA,LEE LAI HUNG,52 JLN MARIAM,MUAR, 84000 JOHOR.
9M2GB,IVAN G WELLER,41-2ND FLOOR,2.5M JLN CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2GC,FRANCIS GOH KHUAN ENG,12 SUNRISE AVE, 806674 SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE.
9M2GG,KATSUYA TAKAOKA
9M2GH,GHAZALIE B ABDULLAH
9M2GJ,LOCKMAN RADIN SALLEH,A-32000 LRG KUBANG BUAYA 85,MEDAN TOK SIRA 3, KUANTAN, 25050 PAHANG.
9M2GK,GEOH KAH LIM,P.O.BOX 119,PEJ POS KELANG, 41710 KELANG SELANGOR.
9M2GL,IDRIS B ZAINUDDIN,27 JLN TASEK,BATU 3 OFF JLN KELANG LAMA, 58100 K LUMPUR.
9M2GO,GOH KHA CHAI
9M2GR,K GANESARETHINAM,18 JLN 27/14C,SEKSYEN 27, 40000 SHAH ALAM SELANGOR.
9M2GS,GURDIAL SINGH A/L TARA SINGH,29, JLN BAGAN SERAI,JELUTONG, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2GV,DATUK HJ. IBRAHIM AXFORD
9M2GW,GEORGE WEE
9M2HA,ABDUL RAHIM B HAMZAH,5-2C BLOCK A FLAT SRI SARAWAK,JLN KENANGA, 55200 K LUMPUR.
9M2HB,HUGH C BLAIR
9M2HC,CHOO CHEE YUN,7 HALA TMN TAMBUN 2,TMN TAMBUN, 31400 IPOH PERAK.
9M2HD,HISAMITSU ARIMA, JA4FUZ,82-4-3 DESA MAS,JLN KELAWAI, GEORGE TOWN, 10250 P PINANG.
9M2HE,DAHALAN B DAUD, 24, KAMPONG CHABANG LIMA,TANJUNG MALIM, 35900 PERAK.
9M2HF,ABD HALIM B MD ARIFF,29 JLN SG 6/2,TMN SERI GOMBAK, 68100 BATU CAVES SELANGOR.
9M2HG,HIROSHI HIGASHIYAMA
9M2HH,HASHIM B MUSTAFFA,E-114 LRG JATI PERAK SATU,TMN BUKIT, 43000 KAJANG, SELANGOR.
9M2HI,RONALD FOO KUET KEONG,305 BLOK 61, SEKSYEN 21,SHAH ALAM, 40000 SELANGOR.
9M2HJ,MUHAMAD SALLEH ABDUL HAMID,8887 JLN NAKHODA KANAN,KG. NAKHODA, BATU CAVES, 68100 SELANGOR.
9M2HK,LEONG KOK HIN,82 LRG SIAKAP 2,BANDAR SEBERANG JAYA, 13700 PERAI P.PINANG.
9M2HL,HENRY LIM MENG FUNG,21 KENROSS DRIVE,WHEELERS HILL, ANGSA, 3150 VITORIA AUSTRALIA, AUSTRALIA.
9M2HM,MICHAL ONG,PEJ SEK TEKNIK TUANKU JAAFAR,AMPANGAN, 70400 SEREMBAN NEGRI SEMBILAN.
9M2HO,HO FOOK CHEONG,72 JLN CHOW KAI,TMN CANNING IPOH, 31400 PERAK.
9M2HP,OOI AH KIANG
9M2HQ,NICHOLAS ANTHONY
9M2HR,HARBIR KAUR.
9M2HS,SALLEH B HAMZAH,1307 SRI LEGENDA,JLN PENARAK, 7000 KUAH, LANGKAWI.
9M2IEC,KELAB RADIO AMATEUR,INSTITUT KOMUNIKASI DAN ELEKTR,KEM SG. BESI, 57000 K LUMPUR.
9M2IT,ITSURO TAMURA,2 LRG 1, JLN KELAWANG,TMN SRI TEBRAU, 80050 JOHOR BAHRU JOHOR.
9M2IY,IKURO YOSIOKA, "IKE",PLOT 9, KINTA FREE TRADE ZONE,JLN KUALA KANGSAR, 31200 CHEMOR, PERAK.
9M2JA,,CHEN KING TONG,33 JLN DATO MUTHUTHAMBI,TAMPOI JOHOR BARU, 81200 JOHOR.
9M2JD,JITENDER DEV SEHGAL
9M2JE,JOHN YEE HIN,54 JLN ANGGERIK 45,TMN JOHOR JAYA, 81100 JOHOR BAHRU JOHOR.
9M2JF,FOONG SENG HENG
9M2JH,LEE KOK YEW,56, JLN TEMENGGONG,IPOH, 31650 PERAK.
9M2JJ,JAAN JUGENSON,SUMMER VILLA APT. 1603,JLN 12/1, SUBANG JAYA, 47500 P JAYA, SELANGOR.
9M2JKL,THE JAPAN AMATEUR RADIO CLUB,OF K LUMPUR,LOTS 463 & 475, PT1 SECTION 94, 58000 TMN. SEPUTEH, K.L..
9M2JL,ONG CHOO LYE,40,JLN. 22/36,LIN SENG GARDEN, 46300 P JAYA SELANGOR.
9M2JM,JOHANN MARTIN HANS,APT D1-06 R.S.G. 6 VIEW,DESA PANDAN, JLN. KMP. PANDAN, 55100 K LUMPUR.
9M2JP,ABDUL JAMEL PAWANTEH,32 LENGKOK ZAABA,TMN TUN DR. ISMAIL, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2JR,YONG PEK LIONG,P.O.BOX 259, 75750 MELAKA.
9M2JS,JOTHINATHAN SUNDRAM, 24 JLN HANG TUAH 8,TMN SKUDAI, JOHOR, 81300 JOHOR.
9M2JW,JANNIE WEE
9M2JX,JAMAL ALI,48 JLN SS 21/22,DAMANSARA UTAMA, 47400 P JAYA SELANGOR.
9M2JZ,MOHD JAMIL YOP OSMAN
9M2KB,KIYOMI KOSAKA,6.7.5 TIVOLI VILLAS,JLN MEDANG TANDOK, BK BANDARAY, 59100 K LUMPUR.
9M2KC,ONG KIM CHYE,8 TKT BATU,BATU UBAN GELUGOR, 11700 P PINANG.
9M2KD,LOONG KOK CHOONG,1477 MAIN ST,JINJANG NORTH, 52000 K LUMPUR.
9M2KE,SHUNICHI KAWANO,1-1-02, CASCADIA,1, HALOMAN CANTONMENT, 10350 P PINANG.
9M2KH,KUMAR ARASU
9M2KI,LOW KIAT HENG
9M2KK,CHAN FOOK CHOY,19, JLN BK 3/1A,BANDAR KINRARA, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2KL,CHEW KEK LEE,4 SOLOK TEMBAGA EMPAT,ISLAND PARK, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2KM,ABD KHALID B KARIM,C/O 9M2EG,10 JLN R MUSA MAHADI, RAPAT ST, 31350 IPOH PERAK.
9M2KN,K N SINGH,SPECIALIST WOMEN'S HOSPITAL,2ND FL WISMA ABAD, CENTURY GDN, 80250 JOHOR BAHRU.
9M2KQ,TAKASHI KOSUGE, 54-10-7 REEF APARTMENT,JLN LOW YAT, 11100 PENANG.
9M2KR,ONG KHEOK CHIN,E-8-5 TMN BUKIT JAMBUL,BAYAN BARU, 11950 P PINANG.
9M2KS,SMITH KEVAN MARTIN,11, JLN LANGGAK TUNGKU, 50668 K LUMPUR.
9M2KUC,KLB RADIO AMATOR SMV A. SETAR,SEKOLAH MENENGAH VOKASIONAL,JLN STADIUM, 5350 A SETAR, KEDAH.
9M2KW,HOOI KWEE WENG,1 TKT KELAWAI, 10250 P PINANG.
9M2KX,KAMSANI KAMBARI,226 JLN JASA 25,TMN JASA BATU CAVES, 68100 SELANGOR.
9M2KY,KEAH SAY WAN,29-13-B JLN RAHMAT,BATU PAHAT, 83000 JOHOR.
9M2LA,NOORLIZA IBRAHIM
9M2LC,LIM KEAN CHUAN,40 LENGKOK BERJAYA, 10350 P PINANG.
9M2LE,LEE KEEN LEONG,28 PSN SENGAT BARU 36,TMN BERSATU, KG KEPAYANG, 31300 IPOH PERAK.
9M2LF,LEE FOOK SENG
9M2LH,LEE HEE MING
9M2LJ,LAU SENG KEE
9M2LK,LOW KOK WAH,20 TKT BINJAI 34,TMN SRI RAMBAI, 14000 BUKIT MERTAJAM KEDAH.
9M2LL,MD. BASRI BIN WAGIMEN,495-A JLN TMN INDAH,TAMPIN, 73000 NEGRI SEMBILAN.
9M2LM,LAM MOW SUM,29 BENTONG HEIGHTS,BENTONG, 28700 PAHANG.
9M2LR,LYE KOW KNIAH, "RICHARD",3217 JLN BAYAN,TMN SENTOSA, 14300 NIBONG TEBAL P.PINANG.
9M2LS,CHOO LUM SENG,522 H TMN AMAN,UJONG PASIR, 75050 MELAKA.
9M2LX,LAU BOON SHU,143 JLN HUJAN MANIK,OVERSEAS UNION GARDEN, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2LY,LOOI CHUI HOON
9M2LZ,TAN LOO LOON,2147 BAGAN AJAM,BUTTERWORTH, 13000 P PINANG.
9M2MA,MANIAM S/O MUNIANDY
9M2MB,K SUBRAMANIAM,LOT 5068 LDG STAFFIELD,JLN K.L, 71700 MANTIN NEGRI SEMBILAN.
9M2MC,D O McDANIEL,3A BLOK 3, KONDOMINIUM PKNS,PESIARAN RAJA MUDA MUSA, 40505 SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR.
9M2MD,MOHAN ARASU,17 JLN SETIA BAKTI 10,BUKIT DAMANSARA, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2ME,MOHD NASIR BIN MOHD ALI,26 JLN SG 2/4,TMN SRI GOMBAK, 68100 BATU CAVES SELANGOR.
9M2MH,AU MUN HENG,30 JLN INDAH 1/27,TMN UNIVERSITI INDAH, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN SELANGOR.
9M2MJ,MASATO OKAZAKI,31-12-2 BANGSAR HEIGHTS CONDO,LRG KALOI, OFF JLN. KURAU, 59100 BANGSAR, K LUMPUR.
9M2MK,THAM KWOK MENG,20-4-6 KONDO BERJAYA, 10350 P PINANG.
9M2ML,MICHAEL C.K.LIM,19 JLN 8,TMN LENSEN OFF CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2MO,MOHAMAD ANUAR BIN NORDIN,37 LRG BURHANUDIN HELMI DUA,TMN TUN DR ISMAIL, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2MOC,MOTOROLA AMATEUR RADIO CLUB,MOTOROLA COMMS. DIV.,FTZ BAYAN LEPAS, 11900 P PINANG.
9M2MP,ABDUL MANAN BIN PAWANTEH,37, JLN TBA 4,TMN BERSATU ARAU, 2600 PERLIS.
9M2MRC,MARTS CLUB,P.O. BOX 10777, 50724 K LUMPUR.
9M2MSC,KELAB RADIO,MAKTAB RENDAH SAINS MARA,JASIN, 77000 MELAKA.
9M2MT,AZMAN SHAH ISMAIL,A201-L, LRG MERICAN,TELIPOT, 15150 KOTA BARU, KELANTAN.
9M2MTC,KELAB MALAYSIAN SIGNAL RA,SG. BESI CANTT., 51200 K LUMPUR.
9M2MV,ARIAMALAR PONNUTHURAI, 18, JLN AWAN KERAWANG,TMN YARLAN TAY BOON SENG, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2MW,M.B. WESTWOOD,30 MEDAN TEMBAGA,ISLAND PARK, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2MX,MUSTAFFA @ AHMAD HJ MENFARI,E-114 TMN BUKIT,KAJANG, 43000 SELANGOR.
9M2MY,SHAMSUL BAHRI ABU BAKAR,104 JLN AU 2A/14,TMN SRI KERAMAT, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M2MZ,MARZUKI B.SAAD,981 JKR QTRS,PUSAT KESIHATAN BESAR SIK, 8200 SIK KEDAH.
9M2NA,SERGIO MARIO BERTUZZO,4, PESIARAN TMN. TUNKU,BUKIT TUNKU, 50480 K LUMPUR.
9M2NC,N.C. KASINATHAN
9M2NI,DANIEL H CASSIANI,28 JLN 3 APT# 2.01,TMN SRI UKAY, 68000 K LUMPUR.
9M2NL,MUHAMMAD NASIR ISMAIL,50, LRG AU4/17C,TMN SRI KERAMAT TENGAH, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M2NM,NORDIN B ABU MANGSOR, 24, LRG IM 2/36,BANDAR INDERA MAHKOTA, 25200 KUANTAN, PAHANG.
9M2NO,AHMAD NAZLI B OTHMAN,37 LRG MELATI 3,TMN MELATI INDAH, 2400 BESERI PERLIS.
9M2NP,NARAYANAN PILLAI,48 L LRG 5,JLN NONG CHIK, 80100 JOHORE BARU.
9M2NQ,ALBERT EWE TOONG WOOI,1-3 JLN CHUA CHENG BOK,IPOH, 30250 PERAK.
9M2NR,J. CHARAN SINGH
9M2NS,SUBRAMANIAM A/L S. NARYANAN,10 JLN 6/8,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2NW,NELLIE WEE,1639 KM 8,KANDANG, 75460 MELAKA.
9M2NZ,MOHD RASHID GANI,16, JLN SAMUDRA SELATAN,TMN SAMUDRA, 68100 BATU CAVES SELANGOR.
9M2OF,OTHMAN HJ MOHAMMAD AMIN,5138-B KAMPONG LEMBAH,KAMPONG SIRIH, 15050 KOTA BAHRU KELANTAN.
9M2OK,OTHMAN ISMAIL,P.O.BOX 182,ESSO MALAYSIA BERHAD, 12000 BUTTERWORTH P.PINANG.
9M2ON,ONG YEN LEONG,10 LRG 10/10A,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2PA,KOH LAY SUAN,22 JLN DATO KOYAH, 10050 P PINANG.
9M2PD,C. HARICHANDRA, P BOX 31, 71007 PORT DICKSON N.SEMBILAN.
9M2PE,PEH SOO KEONG,61 LRG LEMBAH PERMAI TIGA,TANJONG BUNGA, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2PEC,KELAB RADIO AMATOR PEPP,PERS. EURASIAN P PINANG,252B JLN AYER ITAM, 10460 P PINANG.
9M2PIC,STESYEN KELAB,POLITEKNIK UNGKU OMAR,JLN DIARY, 31400 IPOH, PERAK.
9M2PL,GANESH PRITHVY LINGAM,HOSPITAL BUKIT IBAM,BUKIT IBAM, 26670 PAHANG.
9M2PMC,KELAB RADIO AMATOR,PESATUAN PENGAKAP,MUAR, 84000 JOHOR.
9M2PN,P. NADESAN,5 SOLOK SIN LOK,TMN SIN LOK, 30010 IPOH PERAK.
9M2PR,YAP KENG HOCK
9M2PS,PETER STOLLER,34 LENGKOK ZAABA,TMN TUN DR ISMAIL, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2PT,CHAN PIN TAK,42 PERSIARAN JELAPANG 15,TMN SILIBIN, 30100 IPOH PERAK.
9M2PV,P.V. LINGAM,18, JLN AWAN KERAWANG,TMN YARL, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2PW,HO POH WAH
9M2PX,DAVID YEOH KIAT HIN,11 PERSIARAN PEKELILING,TANJONG BUNGA, 11200 P PINANG.
9M2PY,YAP KENG HENG
9M2PZ,DATUK HAJI PAWANTEH BIN PAWAN,1, JLN KEMUNING,ARAU, 2600 PERLIS.
9M2QQ,HANS HEINRICH EHLERS,40 JLN 22/36,LIN SENG GARDEN, 463000 P JAYA, SELANGOR.
9M2QR,BERNARD MAXIMILIAN STEFAN,2 LRG LIMAU MANIS 3,BANGSAR PARK, 59000 K LUMPUR.
9M2QV,DAVID RANKIN,PASIR PANJANG P.O.BOX 14, 9111 SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE.
9M2RB,HJ. RUSLI YUSUF,196 PINGGIR PELANGI,MUAZAM SHAH, 26700 PAHANG.
9M2REC,AMATEUR RADIO CLUB,ROBERT BOSCH SDN BHD,BAYAN LEPAS FTZ, 11900 P PINANG.
9M2RF,RAMACHANDRAN S/O ARUMUGAM,48 JLN 9/154,TMN BUKIT ANGGERIK CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2RI,RAJA ISKANDAR,18-9-6 DESA VILLA CONDO,JLN BUKIT DESA3, 58100 K LUMPUR.
9M2RJ,V. RAJAMANI,36 JLN PJS 9/2,BANDAR SUNWAY, P JAYA, SELANGOR.
9M2RK,R D SWANEY,C/O RAY FAULKNER, MATTEL TOOL,2475 LRG PERUSAHAAN, 13600 PRAI IND. EST, PENANG.
9M2RL,RAHIM MANAP,P.O. BOX 10,KAJANG, 60000 SELANGOR.
9M2RM,RAMAKRISHNAN MANIVANNAN
9M2RS,HAJI ABDUL RASHID SULTAN,2587 JLN PERMATA 16,TMN PERMATA ULU KELANG, 53300 K LUMPUR.
9M2RT,RICHARD EMRICH,49 JLN SS2/93,P JAYA, 47300 SELANGOR.
9M2RW,RAIED AR IBRAHIM,2587 JLNN PERMATA, TMN PERMATA, ULU KLANG, 53300 SELANGOR.
9M2RZ,AHTI JOHANNES AINTILA,C/O PICOPAK, PLOT 32 LRG,PERUSAHAAN MAJU 8, PH4 IND ES, 13600 PRAI.
9M2SB,ABD BAHAR ABD SAMAD,
9M2SC,STEVEN CHOONG CHOW PIN,SP204 SPECTRUM APARTMENT,JLN PJS 11/6 SUBANG INDAH, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2SE,SHAMSUDDIN BIN TEH
9M2SG,KURT GEBHARD SCHIPS,ROBERT BOSCH SND BHD,BAYAN LEPAS FTZ, 11900 P PINANG.
9M2SH,TAN KENG MONG,5 LRG RAHIM KAJAI 11,TMN TUN DR ISMAIL, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2SI,SEBASTIAN DEUBLER,SRI KASTURINA CONDO AP-1A-1-3,JLN MEDANG SERAI, BANGSAR, 59100 K LUMPUR.
9M2SJC,SEKOLAH MENENGAH SUBANG JAYA 1,JLN SS14/6,SUBANG JAYA, 47600 P JAYA.
9M2SK,CLINSTON TAN KOK HOE,5 PERINGIN ESTATE, 10300 P PINANG.
9M2SKC,S.M.SRI K LUMPUR,1 JLN SS15/7,SUBANG JAYA, 47500 P JAYA SELANGOR.
9M2SL,SUNNY LAI
9M2SM,BIN SUN MIN,30 JLN SILAT LINCHAH 15,BANDAR SELESA JAYA, 81300 SEKUDAI JOHOR.
9M2SN,G. SELVAKUMARAN,P.O.BOX 13, 11700 P PINANG.
9M2SO,SHAFIEE B OMAR,1989 PERMATANG BERTAM,KEPALA BATAS, 13200 P PINANG.
9M2SP,P SAMNAS,45,JLN MERU SETIA 1,TMN MERU 4, 42200 KLANG, SELANGOR.
9M2SS,SANGAT SINGH,111 JLN TERASIK LAPAN,BANGSAR BARU, 59100 K LUMPUR.
9M2ST,STEVEN TAN KIAN LIP,57 JLN TERATAI 1/2,TMN BUKIT TERATAI CHERAS, 56100 K LUMPUR.
9M2SU,SUTHA SRIPATHY
9M2SW,THOMAS LIEW SHEE WAN,16, JLN SUNGAI,PARIT BUNTAR, 34200 PERAK.
9M2SX,SAITO BIN SALAM,BLOK 1-7-1 JLN TENGAH,BAYAN LEPAS, 11950 P PINANG.
9M2TA,ONG THIAN AUN,1670 MAIN RD,NIBONG TEBAL, 14300 P PINANG.
9M2TD,UCHIMA,C/O 9M2FK .
9M2TF,ANTHONY FERNANDEZ
9M2TIC,AMATEUR RADIO CLUB,TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, 11400 P PINANG.
9M2TJ,LEE TIAM JOO,A1-13 RUMAH PANGSA,JLN BANDAR HILIR, 75000 MELAKA.
9M2TL,TERUKANE UCHINO,P.O.BOX 13, 11100 PENANG.
9M2TM,CHONG TONG SOO @ C. BABAH SIEW
9M2TN,BRUCE TREASURE.
9M2TO,TERUTSUGU IZUMO,BUKIT DUMBAR APARTMENT U 9-4,97 JLN THOMAS, GLUGOR, 11700 PENANG.
9M2TP
9M2TU,MICHAEL THAM SEW HENG
9M2TW,CHANDRAN KRISHNAN,85 JLN SRI SIANTAN 43,KAWASAN 2,TMN SRI ANDALAS, 41200 KELANG SELANGOR.
9M2UKM,KELAB RADIO AMATOR,UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA, 43600 BANGI, SELANGOR.
9M2UP,UPKAR KAUR
9M2UR,UNGKU RAZAK BIN A RAHMAN,22 JLN SETIA BAKTI,BUKIT DAMANSARA, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2VAC,KELAB RADIO AMATOR VOLVO,FEDERAL AUTO HOLDING BHD.,9, JLN KLANG, 58000 K LUMPUR.
9M2VF,MUI SIEW KAI,10 JLN SS14/5E,SUBANG JAYA, 47500 SELANGOR.
9M2VJ,VIJAYA KUMAR C.R.,32 JLN SS2/55,P JAYA, 47300 SELANGOR.
9M2VM,VIMALJIT KAUR
9M2VT,VALERIE TAN KENG LAN
9M2VZ,MOEY SIEW LOON,17 LRG TENANG, 11600 PENANG.
9M2WA,A.W.WHITE,20 LRG BATAI,DAMANSARA HEIGHTS, 50490 K LUMPUR.
9M2WB,JERRY WEE LEONG BAN,684-B TMN. BUKIT MELAKA,BUKIT BERUANG, 75450 MELAKA.
9M2WE,IRENE WEE
9M2WF,ONG CHONG TEE
9M2WH,CHEONG KWOK WAH,583 JLN KLUANG,C/O KNITEX SDN BHD, 83000 BATU PAHAT JOHOR.
9M2WJ,WAN JOHARI WAN OSMAN,LOT 94 JLN 9,SELAYANG PANDANG, 68100 BATU CAVES SELANGOR.
9M2WM,PATRICK WILLIE MEOW,6 LRG LEMBAH PERMAI 6,TANJONG BUNGA, 11200 PENANG.
9M2WP,JOSEPH THONG,9-13-1 TMN SRI DAMAI,LEBUHRAYA BATU LANCHANG, 11600 P PINANG.
9M2WR,WHITING RONALD EWART,752 JLN 17/34, 46400 P JAYA.
9M2WT,WILLIAM TAN CHAI KWAY,P.O.BOX 259, 75750 MELAKA.
9M2WW,HUM SEE BENG,41 JLN SS 14,SUBANG JAYA, 47500 P JAYA SELANGOR.
9M2WY,KOH KHAI WYE,3 JLN BURUNG MERBUK,TMN BUKIT MALURI, 52100 K LUMPUR.
9M2XC,MASANARI OGAWA
9M2XX,AKIHARU TAKAHASHI
9M2YA,AMY HO PHAG FONG,11 LRG 5/10A, 46000 P JAYA.
9M2YB,CHAM HENG LEE,11 LRG 5/10A,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2YC,CHONG YIN CHEE,60 LEBUH AH QUEE, 10200 P PINANG.
9M2YE,LAW KONG YIN,71 JLN MIDAH 3,TMN MIDAH, CHERAS, 56000 K LUMPUR.
9M2YH,YEAP HOOI CHONG
9M2YK,CHOONG YOKE KIM
9M2YL,SHIRLEY TAN
9M2YM,CHAN YAT MENG,73 DESA MESRA,TMN MESRA, 58200 K LUMPUR.
9M2YN,KYOKO TSURUOKA,75 JLN GASING,P JAYA, 46050 SELANGOR.
9M2YP,YEE KOK HENG,21 JLN 4/98,TMN SUPREME CHERAS, 56100 K LUMPUR.
9M2YR,HARUN B ABDUL RAHMAN,P.O.BOX 20,KANGAR, 1700 PERLIS.
9M2YS,YONG CHEE SENG,1043 JLN CHEMPAKA,KG. KAYU ARA, MUKIM DAMANSARA, 60000 K LUMPUR.
9M2YT,TAN SIM CHAI,14-2-A JLN PANDAN 2/1,PANDAN JAYA, 55100 K LUMPUR.
9M2YX,JASON T F CHAM,11 LRG 5/10A,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2YY,DAN R NEELEY,2 LRG LEMBAH TUNKU,BUKIT TUNKU, 58200 K.LUMPUR.
9M2YZ,ADRIAN T S CHAM,11 LRG 5/10A,P JAYA, 46000 SELANGOR.
9M2ZA,HJ. MD ZAINAL FARID ZAINUDIN,2949 JLN 3,BUKIT KEMANSAH, 68000 AMPANG K LUMPUR.
9M2ZB,ZALMI BIN BUSU,4-2 KAMPONG TANJONG,JLN SANTAN, 1000 KANGAR PERLIS.
9M2ZC,ZAKARIA BIN DAHILI
9M2ZL,AZLAN ADNAN
9M2ZM,ZULKIFLI BIN HASHIM,5163 KAMPONG BANGGOL,KEPALA BATAS, 13200 SEBERANG PRAI.
9M2ZN,MAZWAN BIN ABDUL MANNAN,145 BATU 5,JLN SUNGAI KOROK, 5400 A SETAR, KEDAH.
9M2ZS,MAT ZAIN BIN SHAARI,GERAI NO 4 (PKNPS) PAUH,ARAU, 2600 PERLIS.
9M2ZU,DONALD GENE MILLER
9M6AB,JEWE BIN KIOH
9M6AF,KENFATT ATOB
9M6BE,BALAKRISHNAN E
9M6CS,CHOW SIANG CHEE
9M6ET,STEPHEN CHAN CHENG HING
9M6HS,HUSIN SULAIMAN CHONG
9M6IQ,SENNY K.L. WONGCHONG
9M6JR,JANIM AHMAD
9M6KM,FRANCIS TOH ONN WONG
9M6MA,HJ. HASSAN ABING,
9M6MD,MOHD SANUSI HJ ABD LATIP
9M6MM,PHILIP MAIRON BAHANJA,
9M6MO,MOHAMMED BIN SALLEH
9M6MU,ALFONS UNDAN, 1-2C JALAN MENAWO-2C, KENINGAU, 8900 SABAH.
9M6MX,GURMILDAN SINGH MANN,
9M6MZ,AWANG ZAINI SUNTIM,
9M6SB,SILVESTER NILUS @ SHARIFFUDING
9M6SM,MUI SAM LOONG
9M6SP,LAW PING SIONG
9M6TT,THOMAS THIEN MING KEN,
9M8AJ,ALAN JOHN CLARKE
9M8BL,BELINDA LIM,171-D PERSIARAN COOKES,KUCHING, 93150 SARAWAK.
9M8CC,CARL CHRISTENSEN
9M8DB,JOHNNY TAN,234, LRG 4,PIASAU GARDEN, MIRI, 98000 SARAWAK.
9M8FC,CHANG FOO CHEE
9M8FH,F JASPER HAVELOCK,10 REGENT PARK,JLN KAPOR,KUCHING, 93150 SARAWAK.
9M8HI
9M8IC,IAN CHIN KIE CHENG, 9M2IC,432 JLN ROSE GARDEN,KUCHING, 93250 SARAWAK.
9M8JA,JOHNSON ADDIE EMAI,TES/4 MALAYSIA LNG SDN BHD,P O BOX 89 BINTULU, 97007 SARAWAK.
9M8KC,CHAI KHIN CHUNG
9M8LG,GOH CHENG KIAT
9M8LL,LAURETTA LEE,10 REGENT PARK,JLN KAPOR, 93150 KUCHING SARAWAK.
9M8MA,ALLAN MING ADDIE,MALAYSIA AIRLINES SYSTEM,JLN SONG THIAN CHIOK, 93100 KUCHING SARAWAK.
9M8MC,MICHAEL CHUNG CHIENG ING
9M8MKS,SARAWAK AMATEUR RADIO LEAGUE
9M8MM,MUHAMAD AMIN MAHMUD,24 JLN AU 1C/3K,TMN KERAMAT PERMAI, 54200 K LUMPUR.
9M8PW,PAUL WILLIMENT
9M8RY,YONG LOI
9M8SC,WUNEMA SUE WALTER
9M8ST,JOSEPH SIONG,171-D PERSIARAN COOKES, 93150 KUCHING, SARAWAK.
9M8YL,CASSANDRA HAVELOCK,10, REGENT PARK,JLN KAPOR, 93150 KUCHING SARAWAK.
9M8YS,HA YOUNG SOO
9W2AA, SHARAN JIT SINGH, 21 JLN 4-E, AMPANG JAYA, 68000, SELANGOR.
9W2AB, PHILIP LIM M. K., NO2, JALAN 14/28, 46100 PETALING JAYA, SELANGOR.
9W2AC, Chew Kin Kong Perak
9W2AD Abu Mohd Daud Perlis
9W2AR, ABD RAHIM B ABD RAHMAN, JABATAN PENGAIRAN & SALIRAN, BAGAN SERAI, 34300, PERAK.
9W2AM, AHMAD MISBAH MD JAN, 1820 JKR QUARTERS, JALAN MELAKA, JASIN, 77000, MELAKA.
9W2AR, ABD RAHIM B ABD RAHMAN, JABATAN PENGAIRAN & SALIRAN, BAGAN SERAI, 34300, PERAK.
9W2AZ, ABD AZIZ BIN HJ. ABU BAKAR, JKR 2254, JALAN HOSPITAL, ALOR GAJAH, 78000, MELAKA.
9W2BE, KOH BENG LIM, 280 JALAN 6, TAMAN KAJANG JAYA, 43000, KAJANG SELANGOR.
9W2CN Liew Chee Nya Perak
9W2CL Chan Cheong Loong Perak
9W2DC, CHIANG MENG WAI, 75 JLN MADCHATIRAM SATU, TAYTON VIEW CHERAS, 56100, KUALA LUMPUR.
9W2EH, TEO ENG HUAT, 28 JALAN PASAR, BATU PAHAT, 83000, JOHOR.
9W2EH, TEO ENG HUAT, 28 JALAN PASAR, BATU PAHAT, 83000, JOHOR.
9W2ET, EUGENE TAN SWEE KOON, 632 NAM YANG GARDEN, UJONG PASIR, 75050, MELAKA.
9W2EV, Suhaimi
9W2FC, Chew Fook Choy Perak
9W2FM, FAZIL BIN MAT, 1657 JALAN KEMPAS 7, TAMAN KEMPASAM MERGONG, 8000, SUNGAU PETANI, KEDAH.
9W2FO, FAIZAL BIN OMAR, NO 98, JALAN WIRA SATU, TMN PERWIRA 2, 68000 AMPANG, SELANGOR.
9W2JM, JAINI BIN MUSA, 1725 JALAN JUNID DALAM, PARIT KORMA, 84000, MUAR JOHOR.
9W2LW, LIM WAI MENG, 316 J JAMBU MAWAR 7, TAMAN MUHIBBAH SALENG SENAI, 81400, JOHOR.
9W2LF, LEE SEE FUNG, 4-Q LORONG DELIMA SEBELAS, ISLAND GLADES, 11700, PENANG.
9W2LW, LIM WAI MENG, 316 J JAMBU MAWAR 7, TAMAN MUHIBBAH SALENG SENAI, 81400, JOHOR
9W2LS, Chee Lye Seng Penang
9W2MA, MAZLAN B AZIZ, LOT 10-13 2nd FL RUTH BUILDING, JALAN BANDA KABA, 75000, MELAKA.
9W2MH, MOHAMED HASHIM ABAS, 29 PERSIARAN WIRAJAYA BARAT 62, RAPAT SETIA BARU, 31350, IPOH PERAK.
9W2MG, LEE CHONG GUAN, 21 JLN AJI, SEGAMAT, 85000, JOHOR.
9W2MU, MD MASSHOUD HJ MD UMAR, 44 JLN BUNGA MELATI 2/2, SHAH ALAM, 40000, SELANGOR.
9W2MS, MUNIANDY S/O NARAYANAN, 1888 JLN KALUI, TAMAN SELUANG KELANG LAMA, 9000, KULIM KEDAH.
9W2NB, DR N Balakrishnan s/o Nama Perak
9W2YK, YEO SENG KIAN, G-17 JLN BENDAHARA, 75100, MELAKA.
9W2RA, Roslan Bin Ahmad - Bentong Pahang .
9W2RS, ABDUL RAHMAN IBRAHIM, 114 JLN BUNGA RAYA 15, TAMAN TASIK JAYA SEREMBAN, 70400, NEGRI SEMBILAN.
9W2SF, KOW SEE FOOK, C-1-5 TAMAN DESA RELAU, LEBUH RELAU 2, RELAU, 11900, PENANG.
9W2SK, LIM SENG KEAT, 356 JALAN DATO KRAMAT, IPOH, 10150, PERAK.
9W2SR, SURESH N.KANNAN, 104 JALAN DATO' SENU 32, TAMAN SENTUL JAYA, 51000, KUALA LUMPUR.
9W2SS Abdul Sukur Bin Haji Ahmad Perak
9W2TT, TERENCE TAN SWEE MENG, 632 NAM YANG GARDEN, UJONG PASIR, 75050, MELAKA.
9W2TR, TAN KONG, 56 MAIN ROAD, GUNUNG RAPAT, 31350, IPOH PERAK.
9W2WM, Thong Wei Meng Penang
9W2YK, YEO SENG KIAN, G-17 JLN BENDAHARA, 75100, MELAKA.
9W2YS, Phun Yau Sing Penang

Source: http://a9m2aa.tripod.com/member.html

28 Jan 2013 DX Report



Recently, my interest was finding and making a CW contact with DX station on 40m using my 100 watts transceiver and a homemade 40m dipole (2 meters above the ground). on 28 Jan 2013, the 40m band was noisy as usual. many stations checked and mentioned QRM and QSB report. i cant hear weak signal, but i managed to make a contact with Brazilian station, PP5EG. all log uploaded to HRDLog and also clublog.

Current DX map, dated 27 Jan 2013. The only antenna that i have was a 40m dipole.

Sunday, January 27, 2013

What is Amateur Radio?


- a summary or overview of the fascinating hobby of amateur radio or ham radio.

Amateur radio is one of the most exciting hobbies today. There are over a million radio amateurs or "radio hams" around the world and this is an indication of its popularity. Since the first amateur radio experimenters at the beginning of the twentieth century, the number of people interested in the hobby have grown.

Even with the arrival of mobile phones, international telecommunications and the Internet, amateur radio is still very popular and it attracts many new members each year.


Aspects of amateur radio

One of the great advantages of ham radio is that there is plenty that is plenty to do within the hobby. Some radio hams are interested in one aspect, whereas other will have other interests within the hobby. In fact it is possible to take an interest in these different elements of the hobby so that it is able to become a life long interest that never looses its appeal.
HF operating and DXing:   Many radio amateurs enjoy talking to "DX" stations at all corners of the globe. It is possible to talk to other radio hams on the other side of the globe, or possibly on a small island in the middle of an ocean, or just a radio amateur from the other side of town. All this can be done from your armchair. Even in today's high technology world there is a great fascination about being able to communicate with other radio hams oer the air using no other equipment apart between the two stations.


VHF / UHF and microwaves:   While the short wave bands are the most well know bands for radio amateurs, there is plenty of activity and interest on higher frequencies. There are amateur radio frequency allocations right into the microwave region and all of these allocations give a huge amount of scope for the hobby. Many of the VHF and UHF bands provide an excellent medium for local communications, many radio hams operating "mobile" from their cars. There is also a network of repeaters in many countries enabling contacts to be made over greater distances and by stations in poor locations.


Ham radio friends:   One of the great aspects of amateur radio is the number of good friends it is possible to make. Not only can one talk to them over the air, but there are many occasions for meeting each other. Local clubs and ham radio rallies and "hamfests" are great places to meet and talk. Even if amateur radio friends are in another country, it is not unknown for them to meet. Sometimes friendships have been built up over the air, and the radio hams have stayed with each other or met at an international ham radio meeting.


Computers and data communications:   Other radio amateurs enjoy linking their computers to their amateur radio gear. There are many ways in which computers can be linked to amateur radio gear. They can be used to perform many tasks such as predicting the propagation conditions, or logging the stations that have been contacted. However they can form an integral part of the ham radio station for use with the many data modes that are available nowadays. Using the computer as the controller and interface it is possible to send messages via a network of "mailboxes" to be picked up by the recipient when he next logs in.


Construction:   Some radio amateurs enjoy the challenge of constructing their own equipment. Although much of today's amateur radio equipment can be very technically advanced there is still a major place in the hobby for home construction. There is a variety of ham radio kits on the market that can be built, or a circuit might be put together from a circuit in one of the many magazines that cater for the hobby. There is an enormous feeling of achievement when the first contact is made on equipment you have built yourself.


Antennas:   There are other areas where the radio amateur can experiment. Often radio hams enjoy trying out new forms of antenna. As the performance of the antenna governs the performance of the whole station, even small improvements in the performance of the antenna can pay great dividends, and again the topic of antennas is of interest to many.


Scientific studies:   There have been many instances where radio amateurs have made valuable contributions to scientific studies. One area where this has been particularly true is in the field of radio propagation. The large numbers of radio amateurs on the air have meant that large amounts of data can be collected for the various phenomena associated with propagation. This has been invaluable in many areas of scientific studies. In addition to this, knowledge and experience in areas such as data transmission has been used in developing commercial systems that have incorporated many of the lessons learnt from the experience of radio hams.


Emergency communications:   Amateur radio is often used for the benefit of society. Radio hams often provide emergency communications support to the rescue and other essential services after a disaster. On several occasions amateur radio has provided the only form of communications to and from a storm hit island. Even where such major disasters are not quite so catastrophic, radio mateurs train and offer their equipment and unique expertise for when it might be needed.


More….:   While it is possible to give details of many fascinating areas of amateur radio, it is not possible to itemise every interest. As one finds out more about amateur radio, new areas of the hobby may open up, providing many new interests.

Amateur radio can also lead into an interesting and rewarding career. Many people who have started in amateur radio when they are young have gone on to successful careers in radio or electronics. The blend of experimentation and challenges the hobby offers mean that many employers look for radio amateurs in preference to other candidates. This is particularly true with the booming growth in the cellular telephone industry where radio frequency skills are at a premium.


From this it can be seen that amateur radio is a hobby for anyone, and it can be a fascinating pastime - a hobby for life as there are many aspects to it.

Amateur radio license

Before being able to transmit it is necessary to possess an amateur radio transmitting license. The reason for this is that radio amateurs are given a considerable degree of freedom to experiment, use equipment, and build their own equipment. In view of this it is necessary that radio amateurs have sufficient knowledge about radio and electronics so that they do not cause interference to others. Each country has slightly different conditions, but with the changing regulations world-wide many requirements are being reduced and greater levels of freedom given. In many countries now there is no need for the radio amateur to pass a Morse test.

A ham radio license provides an enormous amount of flexibility for ham radio operating and experimentation. However there are a few things it does not allow. It is not possible to use the license to set up a broadcast station. It is intended for communicating with other radio hams, and in any case thee would also be issues with copyright licensing. Additionally the license does not permit communication with stations apart from amateur radio stations - particularly pirate or unlicensed stations.

A ham shack

When setting up an amateur radio station it will be necessary to set aside some room for the equipment. Dating back from the early days of radio, a ships radio room or an amateur radio station is called a radio shack and the term has remained.

A typical amateur radio shack may include a variety of equipment including transmitters, receivers, and a number of ancillary items. Some shacks may be small and they can be neat, containing a small amount of equipment so that they can fit in a cupboard or in the corner of a room. Other people may want to set aside a room for the equipment.

With a little thought and ingenuity, it is possible to make many areas of the house into an excellent ham radio shack. Even garden sheds have been successfully used. Wherever the amateur radio shack is located, it is worth remembering a few points:

There must be adequate provision for mains power


There must be suitable access for the antenna feeders


It should not get too cold in winder or too hot in summer


Particularly if the amateur radio shack is located outside the main house, there should be sufficient security to prevent any equipment being stolen


It must be easy and convenient to operate the station in its location - some stations located in a small corner of a room may be difficult to use.


By thinking through these and any other relevant points, it is possible to choose a convenient location for the amateur radio shack, and plan for it to be easy to operate the equipment from. In this way the hobby of amateur radio can provide the maximum please and enjoyment.

Summary

Ham radio is a fascinating hobby for many people. Since the hobby was first started back around 1998, many millions of people have been captivated by it and many millions of amateur radio licenses have been issued. Despite the rapid development in radio and electronics technology that have been made in recent years, the hobby of amateur radio is still as strong as ever and many people are entering the hobby of amateur radio. With this being the case, it will continue to be a major interest for many people for years into the future.

http://www.electronics-radio.com/articles/ham_radio/ham_radio/what-is-amateur-radio.php





Ham radio operators prove that short waves can be long on benefits


Amateur radio operators say their old-fashioned broadcasting network is growing because it’s still relevant in today’s wired world.

Amateur radio operators, also known as “hams,” are the primary method of communication after a disaster because cellphones and the Internet don’t work during power outages.

Unlike other means of communications, the Federal Communications Commission requires users to have a license to operate the two-way radios.

Norm Goodkin, who helped launch an amateur radio program at Calabasas High School, said ham radio operators provide a valuable public service. Goodkin also teaches quarterly entry-level study and exam sessions offered by the city of Calabasas and the Lost Hills Disaster Communications Service

Goodkin said ham licensing has been gaining popularity among young people in recent years because familiarity with electronics, radio theory and safety gives them an advantage in high school, college and careers.

“Learning ham radio sets students apart. It gives them an edge because they demonstrate initiative by taking a class that is not normally taught in high school,” said Goodkin.

“American schools no longer teach electricity or electronics. Our kids now can go through school without learning how batteries and light bulbs work. That would never happen in Korea in Japan. There the kids learn electronics to compete worldwide,” Goodkin said.

Goodkin, who is in charge of recruitment for the Lost Hills Disaster Communications Service unit, said many graduates of his program go on to join the Amateur Radio Emergency Service and the Los Angeles County Disaster Communications Service.

According to the FCC, amateur radio, a voluntary noncommercial communications service, remains popular because it enhances international goodwill, something Agoura resident Jerry Lewine experienced firsthand in 1968 when he was an electronic engineering major at the University of Pittsburgh, sharing ham radio equipment with a roommate.

One night all frequencies were dead except for one weak SOS signal emitted by a Greek freighter some 450 miles off the Baja California coast. According to the radio transmission, the ship’s cargo of cotton was on fire and the boat was listing badly. The ship’s radio room was charred and the only communication came from a ham radio operator on board.

Lewine confirmed with a friend that the distress call was real and called the Coast Guard to give them the coordinates of the ship.

“Luckily the U.S. Navy had a cutter in the vicinity, and they rescued all 35 people on board the 485-foot ship before it sank,” Lewine said.

Lewine quit ham radio in the mid-1980s but revived his old passion last year when he installed a 60-foot tower in his backyard to chat with amateur radio operators throughout the world.

“I’ve talked to some truly interesting ham radio operators, including Barry Goldwater, the King of Jordan and Tom Christian, one of the descendents of the shipwrecked crew of the mutiny on the Bounty on Pitcairn Island,” Lewine said.

Recently he met a Florida ham who now lives in a village of 800 people on a mountaintop in Papua New Guinea. The man learned their dialect and is developing it into a written language.

Accountant Bradford Ormsby, who maintains the emergency amateur radio station at Westlake Village City Hall, also has a passion for transmitting a signal across the globe, but his focus is largely on preparedness.

“For the initial time when emergencies come, amateur radio is the one communication service that potentially can link everybody back together,” he said.

Ormsby is a member of the Disaster Communications Services for the Los Angeles and Ventura County sheriff’s departments, among other groups.

Jim Jordan, director of public safety for Calabasas and former captain for the Los Angeles County Fire Department, said ham operators are dedicated people.

“ Some have stations with large antennas in their yards to talk around the world. Others use handheld, just to chitchat (because) if nothing works, a ham radio probably will.”

More than 170 licensed operators live in Calabasas, and about a dozen of them are members of the city’s Community Emergency Response Team. They meet on the air every Saturday to test the system. Similarly, the Agoura Hills Disaster Response Team meets on the air every Monday night.

According to Goodkin, many people come in groups from other regions to take advantage of the local one-day class.

“With long classes, there is a big dropout rate. . . . you learn more by picking up the radio and using it than you do in the classroom. The best thing is to get people licensed with a radio in their hand as soon as possible,” he said.

Amateur radio operator clashes with code enforcement




KENNESAW – Lifelong amateur radio enthusiast Ritner Nesbitt, a grandfather of 10 who lives down the road from Dominion Christian Schools in west Cobb, has attracted the unwelcome attention of the county’s code enforcement department.

Nesbitt said he moved to his home, which is located on a wooded slope across the street from Burnt Hickory Farms subdivision, 20 years ago precisely because it was an excellent spot to pursue his passion for amateur radio, also known as ham radio, a non-commercial radio communication service.

He erected three radio towers on the slope behind his home in the 1990s: two that crank up to 35 feet and one that is 70 feet in height.

Two years ago, he built a fourth 140 foot radio tower which he estimates cost him “easily” $30,000 to $40,000.

In March, the county received a complaint about the tower and issued Nesbitt a notice of violation. Nesbitt responded to this notice by arguing that ham radio operators are licensed by the Federal Communications Commission and therefore are exempt from local ordinances. But just to be safe, he applied for a special land permit for the 140 foot tower, which the county’s Planning Commission denied on Tuesday in a 5-0 vote.

The matter now heads to the Board of Commissioners on Oct. 16.

During Tuesday’s hearing, John Pederson, the county’s zoning division manager, said any tower above 35 feet needs a special land use permit unless it’s a ham radio tower in which case the county allows a property owner to have one that is up to 70 feet in height.

Pederson also said the county did not have building permits on record for either the 70 foot or the 140 foot tower, something that was required.

Bob Hovey, Commissioner Helen Goreham’s appointment to the Planning Commission, led the case to deny the permit during the meeting.

“Can you tell us how we got to the place where we basically ignored the law for land use permits and building permits for 10 years?” Hovey asked Nesbitt’s attorney, Christopher Balch, during the hearing.

Balch said there was never an intention to defy the county’s ordinance.

“We’ve tried to reach a balance based on Mr. Nesbitt’s lay understanding of (the FCC) and its preemption status and respond appropriately under those circumstances,” Balch said.

County attorney Dorothy Bishop weighed in with her opinion on the 140 foot tower.

“The tower does have to comply with local ordinances because it’s a balancing act between the rights of the amateur radio operator and the county zoning, so this application should be considered under the same criteria as any tower of its size,” Bishop said.

While no one turned out to speak against the tower during the hearing, one of Nesbitt’s neighbor’s, Jodi Siciliano, told the Journal she hopes the Board of Commissioners will deny the request.

“My objection is that my house faces his backyard, so I look right at them, and you know, we have nice houses here, and they’re very unsightly, not nice to look at, these huge gigantic radio towers that you’re facing, plus, they are very, very tall, and if one of them were to come down it would come down close to my driveway,” said Siciliano, who said she moved in her house in 2006.

Nesbitt, who is retired from the telephone and construction industries, said he will defend his towers in court if necessary.

“If I knew I was wrong in what my privileges provide I’d take steps to change it or correct it,” Nesbitt said. “But the FCC has given me this privilege, and I’ve had this privilege for nearly 50 years. I’m not about to let somebody take it because they just feel like taking it. That’s wrong.”

Nesbitt said he learned about amateur radio as a teenager in Miami when a classmate couldn’t figure out how to work his short wave radio.

“After building that one radio, I got it to work, I bought other small kits, and then I started hearing these guys talking to one another, these were ham operators. And I said, ‘I wanted to do that.’”

Nesbitt taught himself how to send and receive Morse code and later learned how to talk over the radio with a microphone. One room in his house is entirely devoted to the hobby, filled with various transceivers dating to the 1950s, all of them in working order.

“There are over 600,000 licensed ham radio operators in the United States,” Nesbitt said. “We come out when there are national emergencies. We don’t get any monies for our services. This is a voluntary group of operators. (The FCC) they recognize the importance of operators in national disasters and emergency conditions. There is no other service in the U.S. that does what we do on a 24/7 hour basis. So that is the reason they have an interest. When all else goes down in a natural disaster, when land line communication goes out, we’re there, and we’ve been there under all conditions. When they had the earthquake in Haiti, when they had the problems over in the Far East, when they had several tsunamis and there was no communication, the only way communications got out was through ham radio.”

Nesbitt said he has befriended fellow ham radio operators from all over the world.

“One of my most exciting conversations was when I talked to a guy in the Antarctic,” he said. “He’s on nothing but ice. There are research firms that are down there doing research and they use ham radio to communicate back to the States.”

Nesbitt said he didn’t want to calculate how much he has spent on his hobby, otherwise, his wife, Patricia, would use it against him next time he wanted to make a purchase.

As for the county, “They want to impose their law and the federal government is the law that I am governed by,” he said.

Yet Hovey views it differently.

“These houses have a right to walk out their front door and not see what amounts to an illegal tower in their front yard,” Hovey said. “Now, I have friends who are radio amateurs, and I can’t even call them part of the day because they stay up all night on their radios. This is a serious thing, and I respect amateur radio, and I think this is a great civil service these folks provide, but it doesn’t mean they can ignore the rights of their neighbors.”

Source: http://www.mdjonline.com/view/full_story/20398475/article-Amateur-radio-operator-clashes-with-code-enforcement-

Amateur radio operator





An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service. Amateur radio operators have been granted an amateur radio license by a governmental regulatory authority. As a component of their license, amateur radio operators are assigned a call sign that they use to identify themselves during communication. There are about three million amateur radio operators worldwide.

Amateur radio operators are also known as radio amateurs or hams. The term "ham" as a nickname for amateur radio operators originated in a pejorative usage by operators in commercial and professional radio communities. The word was subsequently welcomed by amateur radio operators, and it stuck.

Few governments maintain detailed demographic statistics of their amateur radio operator populations, aside from recording the total number of licensed operators. The majority of amateur radio operators worldwide reside in Japan, the United States, Thailand, South Korea, and the nations of Europe. The top six countries by percentage of the population are Japan, Slovenia, Taiwan, South Korea and Thailand. Only the governments of Yemen and North Korea currently prohibit their citizens from becoming amateur radio operators. In some countries, acquiring an amateur radio license is difficult because of the bureaucratic processes or fees that place access to a license out of reach for most citizens. Most nations permit foreign nationals to earn an amateur radio license, but very few amateur radio operators are licensed in multiple countries.


In the vast majority of countries, the population of amateur radio operators is predominantly male. In the United States, approximately 15% of amateur radio operators are women.[6] In China, 12% of amateur radio operators are women.[7] The Young Ladies Radio League is an international organization of female amateur radio operators.
A male amateur radio operator can be referred to as an OM, an abbreviation used in Morse code telegraphy for "old man", regardless of the operator's age. A female amateur radio operator can be referred to as a YL, from the abbreviation used for "young lady", regardless of the operator's age. XYL was once used by amateur radio operators to refer to an unlicensed woman, usually the wife of a male amateur radio operator; today, the term has come to mean any female spouse of an amateur radio operator, licensed or not. Sometimes the wife of a ham operator is called a YF (wife). Although these codes are derived from English language abbreviations, their use is common among amateur radio operators worldwide. Incidentally, the most common language heard in the HF amateur bands (the bands below 30MHz that support worldwide communications) is English.

In most countries there is no minimum age requirement to earn an amateur radio license and become an amateur radio operator. Although the number of amateur radio operators in many countries increases from year to year[citation needed], the average age of amateur radio operators is quite high. In some countries, the average age is over 80 years old, with most amateur radio operators earning their license in their 40s or 50s.

Some national radio societies have responded to this by developing programs specifically to encourage youth participation in amateur radio, such as the American Radio Relay League's Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program.The World Wide Young Contesters organization promotes youth involvement, particularly amongst Europeans, in competitive radio contesting. A strong tie also exists between the amateur radio community and the Scouting movement to introduce radio technology to youth. WOSM's annual Jamboree On The Air is Scouting's largest activity, with a half million Scouts and Guides speaking with each other using amateur radio each October.

Silent key refers to an amateur radio operator who is deceased.The term can be abbreviated 'SK', especially in morse code.The key in the term refers to a telegraph key, the instrument that all early amateur radio operators, as well as many contemporary amateur radio operators, have used to send Morse code. The term SK is used to refer to any amateur radio operator who is deceased, regardless of whether or not they were known to have actively used a telegraph key or Morse code in their two-way personal communications.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amateur_radio_operator



Saturday, January 26, 2013

II1IANS - Special Event Callsign



II1IANS is a special event callsign operated by E.R.A. Arenzano from Nazario Sauro Genova submarine.


This special call-sign will be back on air on January 26th and 27th from "Nazario Sauro" submarine !! It will be operated by ERA Arenzano's operators.

Only this one is the correct "Nazario Sauro" callsign.

This special call-sign has been operated during the Festival of Science of Genova, from October 15th, to November 10th, 2010.


The Submarine “Nazario Sauro” is the first of a generation of Italian submarines built in the 70's, witnesses and protagonists of the last years of the Cold War.

This submarine is docked in Genoa in front of the “Galata” Sea's Museum.

“Nazario Sauro” is part of the Sea's Museum visit and he is the biggest submarine ever shown in an Italian Museum.

The visitors can embark into the “Sauro” and live a fascinating and unique underwater experience.

Every QSO will be confirmed by eQSL(AG).

great suggestion to turn RFI from a battery charger into a useful indicator:



I have a different thought about interference from battery chargers. For a totally blind person, the radio interference can be helpful. Put an AM radio next to the charger, and if you're familiar with what kind of noise each phase makes, you can tell how far along the charge is.  Another charger I have shows red LED's when charging and green ones when it's done. It, too, puts out different sounds for these two phases.   I'm not totally blind myself, but it seems to me these chargers can be useful for someone who is, as long as they know how to take advantage of the radio noise. The chargers are otherwise not blind-friendly.


John, KC0HSB,

SWL QSL In Malaysia


Radio TV Malaysia (RTM) regional broadcasts can now be verified directly by sending e-mail reports to Mr. Zulkifli Bin Abdul Rahim at zulrahim@rtm.gov.my .

Also the reports may alternatively be mailed to Deputy Director Mr. Othman Bin Md. Said at othman@rtm.gov.my .
If postal reports need to be acknowledged with QSLs, reports must be addressed to:
Mr. Zulkifli Abdul Rahim, Head of Assistant Director (Quality Measurement)
Technical Section – RTM Kajang, Radio Television Malaysia
Angkasapuri
50614
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia.
Reports may also be addressed to:
Mr. Othman Mohammed Said, Deputy Director, Networks Technical Section
RTM Kajang, Radio Television Malaysia
Angkasapuri
50614, Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia.
Reports addressed to regular RTM address may not verify, if correct official/department is not mentioned. Since it may not reach the right official.
Thanks to Mr. Timm Breyel in Malaysia, who provided me some information about this.
Mr. Othman Md. Said signed a nice QSL card on my three reception reports on 9835 and 11665 dated Dec 07 and 08, 2012.
(Rajeesh, Dec 31) DSWCI/DX Window 471)

Source: http://mt-shortwave.blogspot.com/2013/01/new-source-for-qsling-malaysia.html

CR-1 Communication Receiver

Miniature, portable digital SDR-Software Defined Radio





General Specifications

Receives HF: 160m – 10m Amateur (Ham) Radio & AM International Broadcast Bands
VHF: FM broadcast, Aircraft Band, Amateur, Marine, NOAA Weather Radio
UHF: GMRS & FRS (family radio service)
Frequency Coverage and Modes:
MW-HF Continuous Coverage: 500 kHz - 30.000 MHz
Amateur Band Selections: 160m – 10m
CW-SSB auto-selection  with Mode override (AM-CW-SSB)
Auto-Filter Width select with override: AM: 10 kHz/SSB: 2.6 kHz/CW: 1 kHz
Tuning Resolution (cursor control): 1 MHz  - 100 – 10 - 1 kHz  / 100  - 10 Hz
International Broadcasting: auto-select  AM  - 5 kHz steps - cursor override with 7.5 kHz  filter
VHF VHF: Continuous Coverage:  64.0  - 225.0 MHz
FM Broadcast: 87.7 - 107.9 – monaural - 200 kHz channel steps
Aircraft Band: 118.000 - 136.975 MHz, AM auto-select -25 kHz channel steps
Amateur, Marine, and Public Service: 137.0  - 225.0: NBFM
Tuning Resolution (cursor control): 1 MHz  - 100 – 10 - 1 kHz  / 100  - 10 Hz
UHF UHF: Continuous Coverage: 438.0 – 468.0 MHz – Mode NBFM with Mode override
Bands: Amateur starting at 438.0 MHz, GMRS, FRS allocations -25 kHz steps/cursor override
Tuning Resolution (cursor control): 1 MHz  - 100 – 10 - 1 kHz  / 100  - 10 Hz
Receiver Architecture Dual conversion super-heterodyne with low-IF , I-Q digital sampling, 16 bit DSP with digital audio CODEC
DSP algorithms for all demodulation: DSB-AM, SSB, CW, WBFM, NBFM and channel filtering
Audio System –
(Digital CODEC) Speaker Driver: 1 W into 8 Ohm load
Internal 2.5” diameter, Mylar communications grade speaker
External monaural speaker jack (3.5 mm stereo jack - back panel)
Headset Driver: 40 mW into 16 Ohms. (3.5 mm stereo jack - front panel)
Antenna Inputs MW-HF Port: 1000 Ohm – 3.5 mm audio jack
Accepts telescoping whip or wire antenna, auto detection
MW-HF Port: 50 Ohm – BNC (female)
VHF-UHF Port: 50 Ohm – BNC (female)
Display 64 x 128 OLED Display with EMI filter-lens
Readable outdoors  and manually dimmable
Power Inputs USB and 6-18 VDC – 2.1 mm diameter center pin (positive) jack
Power Consumption 1.1 W (headset) – 1.6 W (speaker)
USB Mini-B –USB 2.0 Jack (powered):  Software updates
Mechanical Overall Size: 5.64” W x 2.43” H x 6.10” D (including knobs, jacks , feet)
Weight: 1 lb – 12 oz
Knobs: Machined Aluminum – Black Anodized
Front Panel: Machined Aluminum – Powder Coated – Black semi-gloss
Case: 20 Gauge Steel,  Powder Coated – Black Crackle.
ESD Protection:  ESD Diodes: Antenna ports - Power  - USB -Keys – Knobs
Origin Designed and manufactured in USA
Warranty Limited 1 year warranty on parts – labor – workmanship

Source: http://www.commradio.com/

Guidelines For Amateur Radio Services In Malaysia

http://www.skmm.gov.my/attachment/Guidelines/Guideline_Amateur_Radio_Service_2012.pdf

If one of amateur radio AA holder passed away, may I use his/her callsign?

In the event of the demise of an ASAA holder, the allocated call sign may be revoked. The revoked call signs may be re-allocated to new applicants after a period of 5 years.

Does amateur radio equipment require certification?



SKMM has published Notice No. 01/06/2004 listing authorised amateur radio equipment which do not require certification. The notice is accessible at http://www.skmm.gov.my/skmmgovmy/files/attachments/notice27may.pdf

Only a person who holds an amateur radio operator's certificate (Class A or Class B) can import and use the equipment listed in the notice. Any amateur radio equipment which is not listed must be certified in accordance with the Regulations.

Thumbs up for amateur radio


Malacca: With the internet, e-mailing, Skype-styled personal and family voice calls and not forgetting the indispensable cellphone extensively hogging the communication limelight, amateur radio (HAM radio) still continues to be tagged as an ‘evergreen hobby’ minus the loss of appeal.

Testifying to this proud outlook are some 50 faithful and new members of the Malacca Amateur Radio Community (MARC) led by co-ordinator Heng Lye Huat. The group is also continually encouraging school and college students as well as young working professionals and retirees to join the fold and is scoring encouraging response.



Established 30 years ago by the late William Tan, MARC which is affiliated to the Malaysian Amateur Radio Transmitter Society (MARTS) is now spearheaded by his wife Jenny Yong (9M2JS) and sons Eugene and Terrence. The group continues to thrive enthusiastically over related facets and aspects like constructing, experimenting and communicating using radio equipment.

Apart from William’s family members and Heng, other notable ‘die-hards’ include mentor and most senior enthusiast 74 year old Choo Lum Seng (9M2LS), in-house trainer Choo Wee Long and senior member Francis Chan. Monthly meets are hosted at William’s home in Ujong Pasir where MARC’s base station complete with around RM50,000 worth of transmitter and receiver equipment boosted by an array of state-of-the-art high frequency antennas are housed and sited.

“Amateur radio may sound like a project initiated by a bunch of non-professionals getting together to start a radio programme just for fun. Far from it. Amateur radio is a scientific hobby that involves construction, study and communication through means of radio waves that brings together fellow enthusiasts local, outstation and overseas who use a set of pre-determined and alllowed radio frequencies.

In Malaysia, a ‘callsign’ is accorded for respective radio operators to identify themselves when licensed by the Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). An amateur licensed radio operator can operate from home, from their vehicle, boat or outdoors using even the simplest radio set-up and antenna.

A number of radio frequencies have been set aside for amateur radio use. On these frequencies, one can talk across town, state or around the world. The scope and possibilities are endless, from sending digital information to operating via amateur radio satellites.

All said and done, one will never know who one will run into when communicating with amateur radio. From young people, retirees, teachers and students, engineers and scientists, doctor, mechanics and technicians, homemakers, boaters and astronauts and even entertainers. It is simply exciting and thrilling to take up amateur radioing, whether now or later or at whatever age”.

According to veterans enthusiast Choo, amateur radio operators use varied modes of transmission to communicate. The most common for voice transmission are amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM) and single sideband (SSB). FM offers high quality audio signals while SBB is better at long distance communication when bandwidth is restricted. Apart from these morse code is also used for much more longer distance communication due to its high immunity over noise interference, he noted.

“Amateur radio is a hobby with many facets and thus attract practitioners with a wide range of interests. Many begin withfascination of radio communication and then combine other personal ‘experimenting’ to pursue this hobby more interestingly.

“Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio communication, radio propagation study, radio know-how, relevant and related technicalities and computer networking” added Choo.

MARC senior member Francis says that all ham radio operators also have a social role to play, for instance helping out during emergencies, natural disasters, search and rescue missions and the like with the use of communication set-ups and equipment required.

“Imagine, if normal communication channels are down, congested or simply not coming or going through for whatever reason. As such, itwould be difficult to co-ordinate efforts to bring relief, plan rescue or provide aid. This is where the network of amateur radio operators can provide communication back-up in collaboration with the local civil defence and related agencies to help out”

Heng concluded saying that the beauty of the amateur radio hobby is that people can reach fellow counterparts around the world freely. The only costs involved are the purchase of equipment, licensing fees and the charges for sitting and passing of prescribed examinations conducted by the MCMC twice a year.

“A HAM radio operator needs a Class B licence to stat up and operate a wireless radio. For this, one has to sit for a theory-based exam. One is tested on knowledge of the various codes and protocols involved in radio communication.

“The Class A licence allows one to operate on a much broader band or frequency than Class B. The exam for this licence include morse code knowledge and all licences are renewable annually” he added.

For those keen to take up amateur radio as a hobby can contact MARC info@marc.server.net.my

Source: http://thestar.com.my/metro/story.asp?file=/2012/3/24/southneast/10947068

ICOM IC-7100 HF VHF UHF DStar Transceiver




In 1995, almost two decades ago, Icom has changed the way hams think about mobile HF communication with their introduction of the IC-706. Since that time, the Icom Mobile HF radios have been the Performance HF mobile radio of choice. Now, at the 2012 Tokyo Hamfair, Icom has once again changed mobile HF communications with the introduction of the IC-7100.


Touch Screen Control Portal
An amateur radio first!  The radio control head features a large, multi-function, "touch screen"' DOT-Matrix LCD display that is positioned for easy view and operation.  This is an important feature as the controller display not only provides information, but is your control portal to the IC-7100's feature settings and menus.



Control Head
 Breaking the the concept that a radio panel should be flat, the IC-7100's control head is designed for an optimal view angle for the LCD as well as the spacing for large fingers, and plent of room to have a large internal speaker along with a CW keyjack, phone/speaker, microphone, and control cable.  
   


D-STAR READY*
The IC-7100 provides D-STAR DV mode digital voice and low speed data communication.
(*No info on operations bands beyond 2m/70cm)
D-STAR: Digital Smart Technology for Amateur Radio

IF DSP features
The latest 32-bit floating point DSP supports many digital processing features such as digital IF filter, twin PBT, manual notch filters. Of course, those highgrade digital processing features work on all ham bands, from HF to the 70cm band.



Other features


  • Built-in SD Card Slot for voice storage and data cloning
  • Dual DSP chips deliver versatile digital processing performance
  • Built-in RTTY demodulator and decoder
  • Multi-function meter
  • SWR graphic display
  • DSP controller RF speech compressor
  • Total of 505 memory channels
  • Voice recording and playback functions
  • 70–70.5MHz coverage, 50W output power (for Europe versions only, varies according to version.)
  • ± 0.5ppm high frequency stability
  • Optional RS-BA1 IP control remote control software


Supplied accessories


  • Hand microphone
  • DC power cable
  • Electronic keyer plug
  • Spare fuses
  • Key plug
  • ACC cable
  • Separation cable


Back panel



The IC-7100 has not been approved by the Federal Communications Commission. This device may not be sold or leased, or be offered for sale or lease, until approval of the FCC has been obtained.

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